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褪黑素真能解决睡眠问题吗?

更新时间:2016-1-27 10:03:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Ask Well: Does Melatonin Aid Sleep?
褪黑素真能解决睡眠问题吗?

Question: Is there good evidence on the effectiveness of melatonin for sleep problems?

问:有没有充分的证据证明褪黑素可以有效地解决睡眠问题?

Answer: Melatonin has been shown to be effective in randomized clinical trials — the kind considered the gold standard in medicine — but it may work better for some sleep problems than others.

答:褪黑素的效果已在被视为医学金标准的随机临床试验中得到证实,但它可能对某些特定种类的睡眠问题尤其有效。

“There is pretty strong evidence it’s effective for jet lag,” said D. Craig Hopp, a program director at the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, part of the National Institutes of Health. But “the evidence is more equivocal for chronic things like insomnia.”

“相当有力的证据表明褪黑素可有效地帮你调整时差,”美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)国家补充与替代医学中心(National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health)的项目主管之一克雷格·霍普(Craig Hopp)说。但是,“对于失眠等慢性疾病,证据就不那么确凿了。”

A 2002 Cochrane review that analyzed 10 randomized trials, most of them comparing oral melatonin to placebo, concluded that melatonin is “remarkably effective in preventing or reducing jet lag.” It not only helped people fall asleep faster and sleep more soundly, but also led to less daytime fatigue and improved general well-being.

2002年的一篇Cochrane综述分析了10项随机试验(其中大多数对口服褪黑素与安慰剂进行了比较),并得出结论:褪黑素可以“非常有效地防止或减少时差反应”。它不仅帮助人们更快地入睡以及睡得更为香甜,还能减少人日间的疲劳感并提高总体舒适感。

Eight of the 10 trials found that taking melatonin for several days after arriving at a destination reduced jet lag from flights crossing at least five time zones. In many of the trials, people also took melatonin on the day of the flight or for several days before the trip, usually in the late afternoon or early evening. Once at the destination, melatonin should be taken close to bedtime, aiming for the local hours between 10 p.m. and midnight. Doses of 0.5 milligrams and 5 milligrams were both effective, though people fell asleep faster and slept better with the larger dose.

10项试验中有8项发现,在到达目的地后的几天内服用褪黑素,减少了因飞越至少五个时区造成的时差反应。在许多试验中,人们还会在乘机当天或旅行前几天服用褪黑素,此时服药时间通常是下午或傍晚时分。一旦到达目的地,服用褪黑素的时间就应改为就寝前,最好是当地时间的晚上10点到午夜之间。就剂量而言,0.5毫克和5毫克都有效,不过,在使用较大剂量时,人们入睡得更快,睡得也更好。

For others with insomnia, melatonin has more modest benefits. A 2013 analysis that looked at 19 randomized controlled trials involving 1,683 subjects determined that on average, melatonin reduced the amount of time it took to fall asleep by seven minutes when compared with placebo and increased total sleep time by eight minutes.

对于受到失眠困扰的其他患者,褪黑素具有中度效益。2013年的一项分析研究了涉及1683名受试者的19项随机对照试验,结果表明,与安慰剂相比,褪黑素平均可将入睡所需时间减少7分钟,并将总睡眠时间增加8分钟。

Melatonin, a hormone, is sold as a dietary supplement and has not been approved for safety and effectiveness by the Food and Drug Administration. It is generally considered safe for short-term use. Side effects include nausea and drowsiness, but people with epilepsy or those taking warfarin have experienced more serious complications.

褪黑素是一种激素,它通常作为膳食补充剂出售,其安全性和有效性并没有经过美国食品和药品监督管理局(Food and Drug Administration)的审批。一般认为,短期使用它是安全的。可能的副作用包括恶心和嗜睡,但在癫痫患者以及正在服用华法林(warfarin)的患者中曾发生过较为严重的并发症。

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