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兹卡病毒传播范围扩大,速度加快

更新时间:2016-1-24 11:05:29 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Spread of Zika Virus Prompts Travel Advisories
兹卡病毒传播范围扩大,速度加快

Travel warnings about the Zika virus, especially for pregnant women, are very much in the news now, but the germ was discovered more than a half century ago, and you may have already visited places where it flourishes.

目前关于兹卡病毒的旅行警告,尤其是对孕妇的警告,受到了新闻媒体的广泛报道。但这种病毒早在半个世纪之前就已被发现,你可能已经去过兹卡流行的地方了。

As of December 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta reported evidence of transmission of the virus in at least 45 countries in Africa, Asia, the Americas and the Pacific islands. There were cases reported in Mexico and El Salvador in November 2015, and one in Puerto Rico in December. Travelers should be concerned, but there is no need for panic.

截至2015年12月,亚特兰大的美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)收集到了兹卡病毒在非洲、亚洲、美洲和太平洋岛屿上至少45个国家传播的证据。2015年11月,墨西哥和萨尔瓦多出现过这种病例,12月波多黎各也出现了一例。旅行者应该加以重视,但也没有必要恐慌。

“There are two things that make people pay attention,” said one expert, Dr. Kamran Khan, an infectious disease doctor and scientist at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto. “It showed up where it has never been before, and it is rapidly spreading. That’s because Aedes mosquitoes are widespread throughout most of Latin America and parts of the U.S.”

“有两件事情引起了人们的关注,”这方面的专家卡姆兰·汗博士(Kamran Khan)表示。“它出现在了以前没有到过的地方,而且还在迅速蔓延。这是因为伊蚊广泛分布在拉丁美洲大部分地区,以及美国的部分地区。”卡姆兰·汗是多伦多圣迈克尔医院(St. Michael’s Hospital)的传染病医生和科学家。

Mosquitoes of the Aedes species (the name derives from a Greek word for “unpleasant”) seem to be the main vector. These mosquitoes also spread dengue and chikungunya, two other, more severe, viral infections.

伊蚊似乎是兹卡病毒的主要传播媒介。这种蚊子还传播登革热和基孔肯雅热,这两种病毒感染更加严重。伊蚊(Aedes)一词来源于希腊语,意为“令人不快的”。

The virus was isolated in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda. Researchers were studying the transmission of yellow fever, when they found the new virus in a rhesus monkey. Its first appearance in humans was in 1952 in Uganda and Tanzania, and the first large outbreak of disease was in 2007 on Yap Island in Micronesia.

兹卡病毒是1947年在乌干达兹卡森林(Zika Forest)被发现的。研究人员当时正在研究黄热病的传播,结果在一种恒河猴身上发现了这种新病毒。1952年,在乌干达和坦桑尼亚,它第一次出现在人类身上。2007年,密克罗尼西亚的雅浦岛出现了第一次兹卡大爆发。

There was an even larger outbreak in French Polynesia in October 2013, when about 10,000 cases were reported. In 2014, there were cases in New Caledonia and the Cook Islands in the South Pacific.

2013年10月,法属波利尼西亚爆发了一次较大的兹卡疫情,大约报告了1万个病例。2014年,南太平洋的新喀里多尼亚和库克群岛也出现了一些病例。

For most people, the Zika infection is not particularly serious. According to the C.D.C., only about 20 percent of infected people have any symptoms at all, and the few who become sick usually have a mild fever, sometimes diarrhea or a rash, headache or muscle pain. The illness goes away within a week, and rarely requires hospitalization. Rest, pain medication and hydration are the only treatments, and there is no cure or vaccine. There has never been a death attributed to the Zika virus, according to the C.D.C.

对于大多数人来说,兹卡感染并不是特别严重。CDC表示,只有约20%感染者会出现症状,少数人会有轻微的发烧,有时会出现腹泻或皮疹、头痛、肌肉疼痛。症状会在一周之内消失,极少有人需要住院治疗。兹卡没有特效药或疫苗,只能通过休息、补水、服用止痛药来缓解病情。从CDC的资料来看,以前从未有过兹卡致人死亡的病例。

Still, there are significant dangers for pregnant women because the virus has been linked to congenital microcephaly, a serious and often fatal birth defect in which the fetal brain fails to develop properly.

不过,对于孕妇来说,兹卡非常危险,因为研究已经证明,该病毒与先天性小头症有关。这是一种很严重的先天缺陷,指胎儿大脑不能正常发育,往往会导致死亡。

The large outbreak in Brazil, which began in May 2015, is particularly worrisome because the number of cases of congenital microcephaly in newborns and stillborns has abruptly increased. It is possible that there is some other reason for this, but there is general agreement that until another association is found, the Zika virus should be assumed to be the cause.

2015年5月起在巴西爆发的兹卡疫情尤其令人担忧,因为这里的先天性小头症新生儿和死胎病例急剧增加。可能也有其他因素在起作用,但人们普遍认为,在没有发现其他原因之前,我们应该假定兹卡病毒是罪魁祸首。

No one knows how many people in Brazil are infected, but C.D.C. estimates range from 500,000 to 1.5 million. There have been about 3,500 cases of congenital microcephaly, according to Brazilian health authorities. On Jan. 15, the Hawaii State Health Department reported that a microcephalic baby infected with the virus had been born in Oahu, the first such case in the United States. The mother had lived in Brazil during part of her pregnancy.

没人知道巴西有多少人已被感染,但CDC估计感染人数在50万到150万之间。据巴西卫生部门透露,目前已有3500例先天性小头症病例。1月15日,美国夏威夷州卫生署(Hawaii State Health Department)报告称,一名感染兹卡病毒的小头症新生儿在瓦胡岛出生,这是美国的首例此类病例。婴儿的母亲怀孕期间曾在巴西居住。

Knowledge is evolving, but as of Jan. 15, the C.D.C . had issued Alert Level 2 Warnings (“Increased risk in defined settings or associated with specific risk factors”) for Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela and Puerto Rico. The agency did not mention Africa or Asia in connection with the Zika virus, but warnings about the dangers of other mosquito-borne illnesses are already in effect in those regions.

研究人员的了解也在日益完善,但到1月15日,CDC发布了二级警告(“某些情境下风险有所提升或与特定风险因素有关联”),针对巴西、哥伦比亚、萨尔瓦多、法属圭亚那、危地马拉、海地、洪都拉斯、马提尼克、墨西哥、巴拿马、巴拉圭、苏里南、委内瑞拉和波多黎各。该机构没有提到非洲或亚洲的兹卡病毒情况,但有关其他蚊媒疾病的警告已经在这些地区生效。

Pregnant women, in no matter which trimester, should talk to their doctors if they must travel to countries where Zika infections have been found, and if the trip is not essential, they should consider postponing it. Women who are trying to become pregnant are also at risk, and should discuss their travel plans and the risks of the Zika infection with their health care providers. All travelers should strictly follow the routines that will prevent mosquito bites.

孕妇如果必须前往发现兹卡病毒感染病例的国家,无论处于哪个阶段,她们都应该与医生进行沟通。如果不是必需的,那就应该推迟出行。准备怀孕的女性也面临风险,她们应该与医务人员讨论自己的旅行计划及感染兹卡病毒的风险。所有旅行者都应该严格遵循防止蚊虫叮咬的常规操作。

Aedes mosquitoes flourish seasonally in large areas in the United States, and year-round in most of Florida and parts of Texas and California, so travelers who are infected abroad and return to these areas could spread the illness.

伊蚊在美国大部分地区只是季节性活动,在佛罗里达州大部分地区及德克萨斯州和加利福尼亚州的部分地区是全年活动,因此在国外感染病毒然后回到这些地方的旅行者,可能会传播这种疾病。

Sexual transmission of the virus may also be possible. In 2011, researchers found that a scientist who had contracted the Zika virus while working in Senegal transmitted it to his wife after his return home to Colorado, almost certainly through sexual intercourse. And in 2015 the virus was found in the sperm of a 44-year-old man in Tahiti. There is also at least a theoretical risk of transmission through blood transfusions.

这种病毒或许也可以通过性行为传播。2011年,研究人员发现,一名在塞内加尔工作时感染兹卡病毒的科学家回到科罗拉多州后将病毒传给了妻子,几乎可以肯定是通过性行为传播的。2015年,塔希提岛一名44岁男子被发现精液中含有该病毒。该病毒可能也可以通过输血传播,至少理论上有这种风险。

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