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美国投入数百万美元帮助南非反盗猎

更新时间:2016-1-3 9:11:42 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

U.S. Pours Millions Into Fighting Poachers in South Africa
美国投入数百万美元帮助南非反盗猎

JOHANNESBURG — The Obama administration is stepping up efforts here to combat wildlife poaching, an expanding criminal enterprise in South Africa that has driven several animal species toward extinction and fueled the growth of international gangs.

约翰尼斯堡——奥巴马政府正在本地加大力度打击盗猎。在南非日渐猖獗的犯罪集团使许多物种濒临灭绝,并且助长了国际非法组织的声势。

But the effort is coming as South Africa wrestles with its own strategy, which could diverge significantly from Washington’s. Just last month, a South African court lifted a ban on domestic trade in rhinoceros horns, reigniting a debate between those who claim that a legal trade within South Africa’s borders could help stem the poaching crisis and those who say it would only worsen it.

然而这项努力却来的不是时候。南非也在奋力推行自己的策略,其方向与美国的大相径庭。就在上个月,一个南非法庭取消了犀牛角境内销售的禁令,这引发了激辩:一方认为境内合法交易能遏止盗猎危机,另一方认为这只会使情况更趋恶化。

Tipping the scale, the United States government is pouring millions of dollars into training and intelligence gathering to help counter losses among endangered species, especially some types of African rhinos. South Africa has 80 percent of the world’s rhino population.

为了扭转形势,美国政府倾注了几百万美元用于人员训练和情资收集以挽救濒危物种,尤其是非洲犀牛。南非的犀牛数量占全世界的80%。

And the Obama administration sees national security implications to poaching since it is generally carried out by gangs that also traffic in guns, people and drugs.

奥巴马政府也把盗猎视为国家安全威胁,因为干盗猎的往往也是贩卖枪械、人口和毒品的暴力团伙。

“The bottom line is the impact of wildlife trafficking isn’t just contained to Africa,” said Senator Chris Coons, Democrat of Delaware, who has introduced legislation to require the Obama administration to develop a country-by-country strategy on poaching. “The impacts of this rapidly growing crisis are spreading around the world, now even threatening our national security.”

向立法机构提议要求政府制定反盗猎策略的德拉瓦州民主党参议员克里斯.顾恩斯说,“最重要的一点就是野生动物交易并不仅限于非洲。”“这个急遽扩大的冲击影响及全世界,甚至威胁国家安全。”

Trafficking in wildlife has decimated elephant and rhino populations in Africa. In the first eight months of this year, poachers had killed 749 rhinos in South Africa, up from 716 over the same period in 2014, according to the latest figures from the South African government.

野生动物交易已经造成非洲大象和犀牛的大量死亡。据南非政府最新的统计,仅仅在今年的头八个月,盗猎者已在南非残杀了749头犀牛,而2014年同期是716头。

But the trade has moved beyond Asia. The United States has grown into the second-largest market for illegal wildlife products and is a major conduit of contraband flowing across the Pacific.

可是这种交易已经跨过亚洲。美国已成为非法野生动物的第二大市场,是跨越太平洋的私货的主要流通管道。

One of the many groups being funded by the United States to help combat the illegal wildlife trade here is the Endangered Wildlife Trust, an environmental group that works to protect endangered animal and plant species.

濒危生物信托基金会,是美国资助的许多打击非法野生动物交易的组织之一,是一个致力于保护濒危动植物物种的环保团体。

Based in an industrial park just outside Johannesburg, the group is one of three nongovernmental organizations here that recently received a combined $1.8 million in grants from the State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement to train law enforcement and government officials to use surveillance equipment and to identify and protect endangered plant species.

该组织的总部设在约翰尼斯堡市郊的工业园区,是最近获得国务院国际毒品与司法署总数180万补助金的三个非政府组织之一。这笔资金是用来训练司法与政府官员使用监视设备并指认及保护濒危物种。

Adam Pires, who runs training programs for the wildlife trust, said that many law enforcement officials often lack the skills to properly investigate poaching.

亚当.派尔斯掌管野生动物信托基金会的训练项目,他表示许多司法官员往往缺乏调查盗猎的技巧。

“Most of these guys are used to covering murders and street crimes,” Mr. Pires said. “They don’t know anything about collecting evidence for environmental crimes or preserving a poaching crime scene.”

派尔斯先生说:“这些官员多半调查谋杀与街头罪案,”“他们对搜集环保罪案证据或保存盗猎现场一无所知。”

The United States Department of Justice has received $100,000 from the State Department to provide training for prosecutors and judges from six southern African countries to combat illegal animal and plant sales.

美国司法部由国务院得到了10万美元的经费,为6个南非洲国家的检察官与法官提供训练,以打击非法动植物交易。

The training, which was held in Zambia, focused on criminal investigation procedures such as establishing a chain of custody, tracing assets and prosecuting environmental cases, said John C. Cruden, the assistant attorney general for the Justice Department’s environment and natural resources division.

这项训练在赞比亚进行。司法部环境与自然资源科的助理检察官约翰. C .克鲁登说,重点在于罪犯调查程序,如建立拘留作业系统,追踪物资和起诉环保案件。

“We’re ratcheting up our efforts in southern Africa since this is where so much of the illegal rhino horns and other materials come from,” Mr. Cruden said.

克鲁登先生也说:“我们在加紧南非洲的工作,因为大量非法犀牛角和其他物件都是从南非洲来的。”

The wildlife trust has provided antipoaching training to more than 450 police and intelligence officials. The training, Mr. Pires says, has contributed to an increase in the number of people arrested for poaching. Arrests in Kruger National Park, a major area of operations for poachers in South Africa, totaled 138 as of August 2015 compared with 81 arrests over the same period last year, according to government data.

野生动物信托基金会已为超过450名警察与调查员提供了反盗猎训练。派尔斯先生说,这项训练对盗猎被捕的增加颇有贡献。根据政府统计,在南非盗猎最猖獗的克鲁格国家公园被捕的人数,由去年八月的81人上升到2015年同期的138人。

American money has gone to help provincial governments buy equipment such as night-vision goggles, said Moses Rannditsheni, a spokesman for the South African Department of Environmental Affairs.

南非环保事务部发言人摩西.冉迪申尼表示,美国资金是用来协助地方政府购买夜视镜之类的设备。

The South African government has requested boots, tents and other survival gear discarded by the Defense Department and the Coast Guard through the Excess Defense Articles program, which offers equipment free or at a discount to foreign governments, Mr. Rannditsheni said.

南非政府曾通过美国的剩余国防物资项目索取被国防部与海岸警备队丢弃的靴子、帐篷和其他求生用具。冉迪申尼先生说,这个项目免费或以折扣价为外国政府提供设备。

Antipoaching efforts in South Africa and neighboring countries are part of a larger American effort to stem the booming illegal trade in wildlife. The recently completed Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement includes deals with several Asian countries to require them to enforce laws and regulations to protect wildlife covered under an international treaty that protects endangered plants and animals.

在南非及邻近国家的反盗猎行动是美国遏止方兴未艾的野生动物非法交易的一部分。最近签订的泛太平洋伙伴贸易协定就包括一些与亚洲国家的约定,要求这些国家切实执行法规保护国际条约所涵括的濒危野生动物。

According to research by the Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center at George Mason University, the illegal trade is being driven by international criminal gangs, most of which are non-African. The center received a grant of nearly $400,000 from the State Department to identify syndicate leaders, trade routes and financiers in the South African wildlife trade.

据乔治梅森大学的恐怖主义、跨国犯罪与贪腐中心的研究,非法交易由国际犯罪团伙所推动,且多半不是非洲人。该中心获得国务院提供的近40万美元的资金用来侦查南非野生动物买卖的犯罪集团头目、交易路线和支持财团。

Louise Shelley, the center’s director of the center, said the gangs are led by Pakistani and other Asian poachers who use African middlemen to hunt and transport the animals. People involved in the illegal wildlife trade in South Africa also deal in drugs and cigarettes.

路易丝.雪莉,该中心的主任,表示许多团伙是由巴基斯坦人或其他亚洲盗猎者领导的,他们利用非洲掮客来捕猎及运输野生动物。南非从事非法野生动物买卖的团伙也从事毒品与香烟买卖。

Dr. Shelley said the center’s efforts to fully grasp the size and composition of illegal poaching have been hampered by a lack of cooperation and intelligence sharing from the South African government.

雪莉博士说,该中心充分掌握非法盗猎规模与结构的努力事倍功半,因为南非政府不合作也不愿分享情报。

“They have not been willing to share any information with us,” Dr. Shelley said.

雪莉博士说:“他们一直不愿意跟我们分享任何资讯。”

The South African Police Service, one of the law enforcement agencies leading the government’s antipoaching efforts, did not respond to requests for comment.

南非警察署,领导反盗猎行动的执法单位之一,对雪莉博士的话不予回应。

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