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大公、铁托和种族屠杀,去萨拉热窝看历史

更新时间:2015-11-26 10:16:40 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Sarajevo’s Enduring Optimism
大公、铁托和种族屠杀,去萨拉热窝看历史

In June, at the end of a long day, I found myself wandering down the Ferhadija, a 16th-century pedestrian way that runs through the heart of Old Town Sarajevo. On warm evenings the walkway swells and churns until it resembles a river of humanity — people come out to see and be seen, to promenade and take in the rhythms of the city as children dart between legs, young lovers stroll arm in arm, and the distant heave of an accordion echoes down an alleyway.

今年6月,漫长的一天结束后,我信步走在费尔哈迪亚大街上。这条步行街建于16世纪,贯穿萨拉热窝老城区的核心地带。炎热的傍晚,街上人头攒动,如大江翻涌。人们出门看风景,也点缀着别人眼中的风景,他们散着步,聆听着城市的旋律。孩子在大人的膝间奔跑,年轻的恋人挽着手,一条巷子里传来遥远的手风琴声。

Lined with cafes, the Ferhadija begins at the eternal flame World War II memorial on Marshal Tito Street and moves east, backward through time: The concrete Socialist-era buildings give way to the elaborate pastels and corniced facades of the city’s Austro-Hungarian period, before finally ending in the Bascarsija, the old Ottoman district, where you walk past serene courtyards filled with introspective Muslim worshipers, the hush of a centuries-old public fountain, and stalls selling a rainbow of spices, traditional copper coffee pots, and the ubiquitous cevapi, a glorious meat-in-a-pita concoction.

费尔哈迪亚大街两侧咖啡馆林立,起点是铁托元帅大街上的二战纪念中心“永恒之火”,一路向东延伸,展示着越发久远的历史:社会主义时期的混凝土大楼、奥匈帝国时期的精致粉彩和檐立面,最后是奥斯曼帝国时期建立的巴西查尔西亚老城区,在这里你会经过内省的穆斯林信徒聚集的宁静庭院、一座几个世纪前建造的公共喷泉,还有售货亭,里面出售着各种各样的香料、老式的铜咖啡壶,以及随处可以买到的cevapi——把肉塞进面饼里做出的美味食品。

This collision of past and present lends the city a hyperreal texture, as if you are walking through a postcard come to life. Whenever I roam through Sarajevo’s labyrinthine streets, I am amazed that it is not overrun with more tourists, for while the city’s compact size makes it feel accessible, its complex collision of cultures gives it an air of enduring mystery.

古老与现代的碰撞让这座城市显得有些不真实,游客恍若置身明信片的画中。每当我徜徉在萨拉热窝迷宫般的街道,我总是诧异于它没有被更多游客占据,因为尽管这个城市并不大,似乎能够轻易抵达它的每一个角落,各种文化的纵横交错则让它拥有了一层永恒的神秘感。

“Sarajevo is a latitudinal city,” explained Amir Vuk-Zec as we sat sipping coffee in one of the city’s many cafes. Mr. Vuk-Zec, perhaps the most famous architect in Bosnia and Herzegovina, spoke in rapid, self-contained maxims, like a prophet on too much caffeine. In his left hand he held a clutch of drafting pencils. “To understand the soul of this city you must see how it runs west to east, like this.” He took one of the pencils and began drawing a diagram of the lateral movement of the city on the back of our bill. “It is a long bowl, you see? It is a touchable city.”

“萨拉热窝是一座纬度上的城市,”波黑阿米尔·武克-泽茨(Amir Vuk-Zec)说。他几乎算得上波黑最著名的建筑师。我们坐在这座城市众多咖啡馆中的一家,小口啜饮着咖啡。他以快速而克制的语气说出不容置疑的道理,就像一位摄入了过多咖啡因的先知。他左手握着一把素描铅笔。“要理解这座城市的灵魂,你必须去看看它从西到东的变化。”他抽出一支铅笔,在我们的账单背面画出了这座城市横向剖面图。“它是一个椭圆形,看到了吗?这是一个可以触摸的城市。”

Could a city, as Mr. Vuk-Zec claimed, truly have a soul? And if you destroyed much of this city, rained artillery down upon it day after day, year after year, and then rebuilt this city all over again, would it still be the same city as before? These were some of the questions I posed to a range of Sarajevan artists, architects, designers and theater directors on my visit this past summer.

一座城市真的能像武克-泽茨说的那样拥有灵魂?而如果这座城市遭到严重毁坏,日复一日、年复一年地接受枪林弹雨,然后再重建,它还是原来的城市吗?今年夏天,在萨拉热窝游览期间,我把这些问题抛给了这里的艺术家、建筑师、设计师和戏剧导演。

Since the siege ended almost 20 years ago, Sarajevo has become a working laboratory for such questions, made all the more fascinating by its rich, layered history. One could make the case that Sarajevo, long poised on the fault line of empires, has seen more tumultuous events in the last 150 years than any other city of its size. It has witnessed firsthand the handover from Ottoman to Austro-Hungarian rule; the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which instigated the First World War; the rise and fall of fascism; the rise and fall of socialism; and then that horrific war in the 1990s, one of the first wars whose atrocities were televised in real time for a global audience.

自从围城战役在大约20年前结束后,萨拉热窝已经成为研究此类问题的活体实验室。丰富而具有层次的历史让这座城市格外引人入胜。可以说,长期处在帝国断层线上的萨拉热窝,过去150年经历的动荡比任何其他同等规模的城市都多。它见证了从奥斯曼帝国到奥匈帝国统治的权力交接;见证了引爆第一次世界大战的弗朗茨·费迪南大公(Archduke Franz Ferdinand)遇刺事件;见证了法西斯主义的崛起和灭亡;见证了社会主义的兴衰;然后就是上世纪90年代的可怕战争,它和其他一些战争中的种种暴行,首次通过电视实时播放给了全世界。

And yet the beautiful, cosmopolitan, worldly city that has persisted through all of this remains an undiscovered treasure trove for the visitor, like a mini-Istanbul tucked away in the Dinaric Alps. To visit Sarajevo is to witness both our modern civilization’s greatest sorrows and greatest triumphs.

然而这座美丽的国际性都市在历经沧桑之后,对游客来说仍然是一座未发掘的宝藏。它好像镶嵌在迪纳拉山脉上的迷你的伊斯坦布尔。在萨拉热窝游览,你可以同时感受现代文明最深沉的忧伤和最伟大的胜利。

“We have too much history!” Bojan Hadzihalilovic told me with a smile. “We don’t know what to do with all our history!” Mr. Hadzihalilovic is a graphic designer and a former member of the legendary TRIO collective. During the war, TRIO produced a series of now-famous posters in which they inserted Sarajevo’s name into various quintessential designs: Coca-Cola, Absolut vodka, Edvard Munch’s “The Scream.” “I WANT YOU TO SAVE SARAJEVO!” ordered Uncle Sam.

“我们的历史太多了!”博扬·哈兹哈利罗维克(Bojan Hadzihalilovic)笑着告诉我。“我们都不知道用它来做些什么!”哈兹哈利罗维克是一位平面设计师,也是富有传奇色彩的TRIO团队的前成员。在战争期间,TRIO设计了一系列如今家喻户晓的海报,他们把萨拉热窝的名字嵌入各种经典的设计中:可口可乐、Absolut伏特加、爱德华·蒙克(Edvard Munch)的《呐喊》。其中一张海报呈现的是这样的情景:“我要你拯救萨拉热窝!”山姆大叔命令说。

It was one of many examples of Sarajevans’ humor and invention in the face of great suffering — resisting the hell of war by getting on with the business of creation. “I would never want to live through that again,” Mr. Hadzihalilovic said. “But during the siege we were at our best as citizens.” Sarajevo will first enchant you with its physical beauty, but it is the people who will make you fall in love with it.

这是萨拉热窝人面对巨大苦难却仍然怀有的幽默和创新精神的诸多证明之一,他们用创造力来抵御战争的诅咒。“我永远不想再经历一次战争,”哈兹哈利罗维克说。“但在围城战役期间,我们都是最优秀的公民。”萨拉热窝首先吸引你的是它的美丽,而这里的人则会让你彻底爱上它。

I first fell under Sarajevo’s spell in 2008. I had just finished my first novel and was in search of source material for my second. I was in that particularly vulnerable and naïve state when you are hunting for stories, ears up, eyes open, ready for an unfamiliar world to unveil its secrets.

我第一次被萨拉热窝吸引是在2008年。我那时刚刚完成自己的第一部小说,正在为第二部寻找素材。我当时处在那种寻找灵感时的格外敏感和天真的状态,好奇地张望和聆听,等待一个我不熟悉的世界揭开它的秘密。

After taking the 10-hour train ride down from Zagreb, Croatia, I arrived in the city blurry-eyed and disoriented. To get my bearings, I decided to trace the route of the River Miljacka to my hotel, passing by Sarajevo’s many bridges, including the five stone arches of the Latin Bridge near which young Gavrilo Princip fired his fatal shot at the archduke.

从克罗地亚的萨格勒布坐了10小时火车后,我抵达了萨拉热窝,迷迷糊糊的,不辨方向。为了熟悉周围的环境,我决定从米里雅茨河步行回酒店。我途径了萨拉热窝的许多桥,包括五个石拱的拉丁桥,年轻的加夫里洛·普林西普(Gavrilo Princip)就是在这附近向费迪南大公开了致命的一枪。

At some point during my walk, the muezzin struck up the azan, the evening call to prayer, his syrupy voice reverberating across the valley from the many minarets that dotted the skyline. After a moment, these intonations were joined by a deep peal of church bells: an Orthodox wedding. This was the audio collage of a city that for centuries was constructed around the tenets of coexistence; a city where you will find a mosque, a Catholic church, an Orthodox church and a synagogue all within 300 yards of one another.

一路上,穆安津发出了晚间的祈祷召唤,他甜腻的嗓音在天际线上的光塔之间回荡。不一会儿,这些吟咏声中加入了教堂深沉的钟声:一场东正教的婚礼正在进行中。这是一座城市的协奏曲,几个世纪以来围绕共存的法则奏响;在这座城市,你可以看到清真寺、天主教堂、东正教堂和犹太教堂,彼此相距不到300米。

Such cultural intermingling occurs against a dramatic backdrop of Alpine mountains that border the city on three sides, clutching this delicate urban cord in their collective palm. The proximity of their elevation is startling. These were the same mountains that once hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics, Sarajevo’s glorious coming-out party to the world, a high-water mark still referenced by nearly everyone I talked to. And these were the same mountains that, only eight years later, enabled the Bosnian Serb Army to encircle the city and torture its populace for 44 months, dropping an average of 300 shells a day, and killing more than 11,000 people, according to the Research and Documentation Center. Sarajevo’s topography, source of its astonishing beauty, also became its great curse.

这一幕文化交融的现实布景,是令人震撼的阿尔卑斯山脉。萨拉热窝三面环山,像一只手掌紧握着这座城市纤细的线条。这些山的海拔惊人地相似。它们曾是1984年冬季奥运会的比赛场地,那届奥运会是萨拉热窝在世人面前的一次光荣的亮相,几乎所有人都会对我提起它。然而研究与文献中心(Research and Documentation Center)的数字显示,就在八年后,这些山脉让波斯尼亚的塞族军队得以包围了这座城市,蹂躏市民44个月,平均每天投下300颗炸弹,导致逾1.1万人遇难。萨拉热窝的地形成就了它的美丽,也成了它最大的噩梦。

“These mountains where I once played as a child, now they had become this place of death,” Nihad Kresevljakovic would later tell me as we shared a coffee from the top of one of Sarajevo’s skyscrapers. Mr. Kresevljakovic is the artistic director of the Sarajevo War Theater, which was founded during the siege and now stages contemporary Bosnian productions. He pointed across the valley toward Mt. Trebevic, site of the Olympic bobsled course and also some of the heaviest artillery positions during the siege. “You came to see space totally differently. You knew which places were exposed, which angle the snipers could see you from.”

“我小时候曾在山里玩耍,现在这里成了许多人的葬身之地,”在萨拉热窝一栋摩天大楼的屋顶,尼哈德·克雷社维利亚扣维奇(Nihad Kresevljakovic)对我说。我们分享着一壶咖啡。克雷社维利亚扣维奇是萨拉热窝战争剧院的艺术指导,该剧院建立于围城战役期间,目前正在演出波黑当代的作品。他指着山谷对面的特勒贝夫奇山,那里曾经是奥运会的雪橇比赛地,也是围城期间最大的火力点。“这些地方在人们眼中完全不同了。因为你知道哪些地方是暴露的,狙击手从哪些角度能看到你。”

I asked Mr. Kresevljakovic why people would go to the trouble of opening a theater in the middle of a siege, when many were without the most basic necessities. “During the war we had empirical proof that art and culture are as important as water and food,” he said. “The theaters were full of people. The audience risked their lives to see the show. They knew they could be killed and they still went.”

我问克雷社维利亚扣维奇,为什么在围城战役最激烈、许多人连最基本的生活用品都无法保障时,还要建起一座剧院。“在战争期间,我们得到的经验就是,艺术和文化与水和食物同样重要,”他说。“剧院里人满为患。观众冒着生命危险来看演出。他们知道自己可能被打死,但还是会来。”

During that first evening in Sarajevo, I found myself standing in front of a once-grand building now lying largely in ruins, its windows boarded up, its crenelations collapsed, soot marks staining its walls. A sign announced that an art exhibition was being held inside. I could not resist entering; these are the types of quarries from which novelists source their materials.

那是我在萨拉热窝度过的第一个夜晚,我无意间走到了一栋曾经十分宏大、如今已是一片废墟的建筑前面。窗户用木板封上了,墙已经倒塌,壁上有煤烟印。一块指示牌显示,里面正在举办艺术展览。我忍不住走了进去——这些正是小说家寻找灵感的好去处。

What I would find out only later was that this building was the famous Vijecnica, or Town Hall, a pseudo-Moorish construction that had become emblematic of the city’s entangled cultures. After World War II, Vijecnica became the National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a move that would eventually seal its fate: Just before midnight on Aug. 25, 1992, the library was targeted with incendiary shells by the Bosnian Serb Army as part of a larger strategy to decimate the cultural legacy of Bosnian Muslims.

我直到后来才发现,这栋建筑就是著名的老市政厅,这座仿摩尔风格的建筑,已经成为这座城市错综复杂的文化的象征。第二次世界大战之后,市政厅被改为波黑国家和大学图书馆,这为它最终的命运埋下伏笔:1992年8月25日午夜之前,这栋图书馆被波斯尼亚塞族军队的燃烧弹击中,后者的计划是彻底毁掉波斯尼亚穆族的文化遗产。

The building burned for three days. Despite the best efforts of the city’s firefighters, who battled weak water pressure and persistent sniper fire in addition to the flames, more than a million books were lost. Ashen pages could be seen drifting across the city for weeks afterward, forgotten words raining down upon a heartbroken populace.

大楼燃烧了整整三天。尽管消防员尽了最大的努力,但由于水压低和狙击手炮火不断,仍然损失了超过100万本书。此后的几个星期,书页的灰烬在城市上空飘散,令萨拉热窝市民心碎。

The exhibition inside the ruins of Vijecnica turned out to be a retrospective of the late Croatian artist Edo Murtic featuring his never-before-seen “Viva la Muerte” cycle, which included huge black-on-white canvases of skeletal army officers, medals adorning their ribcages, their arms thrust in fascist salutes.

市政厅废墟内的展览是已故的克罗地亚艺术家埃多·穆尔蒂奇(Edo Murtic)的回顾展,其中的亮点是首次参展的“死亡万岁”系列,包括描绘士兵骨骼的巨幅黑白帆布油画,他们的胸前挂着金属勋章,手臂伸向前方,纳粹礼的姿势。

The art was dramatic but the setting even more so. To view Murtic’s work, his lamentation of mankind’s horrors, you navigated through what had become a cathedral of these horrors, past piles of rubble, past plaster peeling in blooms; at one point I ran my hand against the wall and it came away black, smelling of thousands of lost books. The very bones of Vijecnica cried out with our astonishing capacity for violence but also our capacity to persevere and to manifest art that nourishes, heals, reminds, rewrites. I left the exhibition bewildered, tears in my eyes, forever smitten by the endurance of a structure erected and battered by humans, a structure that had somehow risen again, stronger than ever.

这个艺术展览令人印象深刻,而它的布景更加令人难忘。为了欣赏穆尔蒂奇的作品,感受他对人类恐怖行径的哀叹,你穿过的是一个经历过这些恐怖岁月的教堂,踏过一堆堆瓦砾,经过如花瓣般脱落的灰浆;我的手轻拂过墙壁,离开墙面时手已经是黑色,闻起来就像成千上万已经不复存在的书籍的灰烬。市政厅的废墟昭示着我们对暴力惊人的忍耐力,也证明了我们保护和发扬那些滋养心灵、治愈伤痛、点醒我们和改写未来的艺术的能力。走出展览时,我百感交集,热泪盈眶,被一栋由人类树立和摧毁,而后又重新屹立、更加强大的建筑深深震撼。

After lengthy delays, Vijecnica’s restoration was finally completed in 2014. When I saw the result in the summer, I was deeply moved, albeit in a radically different way from when I first encountered the building in 2008.

在长久的拖延之后,市政厅的修复工程终于在2014年完工。我在今年夏天看到修复的成果时,被深深地感动,虽然它与2008年我首次看到这栋建筑时已截然不同。

An unimaginable amount of work had gone into recreating every tiny detail from the original design, down to the color of paint used when it was built in 1896. The entire interior — culminating in the soaring atrium, framed by two stories of hexagonal colonnades — had been hand painted in a range of eye-popping colors, including vermilion, azure and gold. The work of repainting alone had taken two years. I stood in the atrium’s exact center and gaped. It was like meeting an old friend I no longer recognized.

为了还原最初设计的每一个微小细节,包括1896年建造时的油漆颜色,人们付出了难以想象的巨大工作量。整个内部装潢——最登峰造极的要数那高耸入云的正厅,由双层六边形廊柱支撑——涂上了一系列令人瞠目的颜色,包括朱砂、天青和金黄。单是重新上色的工作就花了两年时间。我站在中庭的正中央,目瞪口呆。那感觉就像是见到了老友,却认不出来了一样。

We don’t often confront such devotion to history, but when you enter the new Vijecnica, it is as if you are stepping into a place that is both now and then, a place where all possible pasts collapse into the present.

我们不会经常遇到对历史如此虔诚的态度,当你走进新的市政厅,就好像踏入了一个又新鲜又古老的地方,所有可能的历史都瓦解到了现实当中。

Indeed, Vijecnica’s dramatic restoration raises larger fundamental questions about what should happen in a city following a devastating war. What to rebuild? What to preserve? And what principles should guide new construction? Several people I talked to said they wished that more structures had been left in ruins following the war, frozen in a kind of silent memorial. When you walk through the streets today, it is increasingly difficult to find evidence of the siege: facades, once pockmarked with bullet holes, have long been plastered over, and many of the famous “Sarajevo roses” — mortar craters filled in with red resin as a memorial to those who died in an explosion — are now becoming harder to spot as the city’s streets and sidewalks are repaved.

的确,市政厅的不可思议的复原工程引发了更大的根本性疑问,那就是在一场毁灭性的战争发生之后,人们应该做些什么。哪些该重建,哪些应该被保护,新的建设需要遵循哪些原则?一些人对我说,他们希望把更多沦为废墟的建筑保留下来,定格为无声的纪念。今天,当你走过大街小巷,会越来越难以找到围城战争的痕迹:建筑的正面曾经被打得满是弹孔,早已经被抹平,许多著名的“萨拉热窝玫瑰”——红色树脂填充的路坑,以纪念爆炸中的死难者——现在越来越难觅踪迹,城市的马路和人行道都已重新铺就。

A city, like its inhabitants, slowly moves on. And when I asked these same people which buildings should have been preserved, none of them could seem to agree. Though Sarajevo is not large, with just over 400,000 residents, its limited geography means the urban center is crowded, and buildings are too valuable to sacrifice.

一座城市就像它的居民们一样,总要慢慢开始新的生活。当我问人们哪些建筑应该保留时,他们的答案似乎并不一致。尽管萨拉热窝不大,只有40万居民,有限的地理面积意味着城市中心地区十分拥挤,而有些建筑又太珍贵,不能拆除。

Perhaps the most successful memorial project to date has been “Sarajevo Red Line,” held on April 6, 2012, to mark the 20th anniversary of the siege. Conceived by Haris Pasovic, a well-known director, the installation consisted of 11,541 empty red chairs, each representing a Sarajevan lost in the war. The chairs were arranged in 825 rows and stretched half a mile down Marshal Tito Street. Of the chairs, 643 were small, sized for a child.

也许迄今为止最成功的纪念活动,就是2012年4月6日为纪念围城战役爆发20周年而策划的“萨拉热窝红线”。这是著名导演哈里斯·帕索维克(Haris Pasovic)的作品,其装置包括11541把空着的红椅子,每把椅子代表一个在战争中失去生命的萨拉热窝人。这些椅子排成了825行,在铁托元帅大街上绵延800米。其中有643把是小号的儿童椅。

“I missed these 11,000 people,” Mr. Pasovic told me, when we met in his office. “It’s difficult to quantify this number but the city feels their absence.” Why chairs? I asked. “I work in theater, so I am always working in front of empty chairs. They represent a future presence. They are never just chairs. Someday they will be filled again.” Mr. Pasovic is familiar with the transcendent power of art to express the inexplicable, as he famously produced the Susan Sontag-directed “Waiting for Godot” during the siege. Beckett’s play perfectly captured the trauma of waiting day after day for a listless international community to intervene in what had become a kind of surreal purgatory.

“我怀念这1.1万人,”帕索维克在他的办公室对我说,“具体的数字很难确定,但这个城市感受到了他们的离开。”为什么用椅子?我问。“我在剧院工作,因此我总是面对着空荡荡的椅子。他们代表着未来的出席。它们从来都不只是椅子。总有一天会重新坐满人。”帕索维克深谙艺术在表达含蓄感情方面的力量,他曾是苏珊·桑塔格(Susan Sontag)导演的《等待戈多》(Waiting for Godot)的制作人。贝克特的剧本准确地捕捉了日复一日等待死水一潭的国际社会去干预一种炼狱状态的痛苦。

Mr. Pasovic pointed to a large framed picture of Red Line on his wall. “When you saw how many chairs there were, how long this line was, it was almost too much,” he said. “People were crying. They would walk up and down and choose a chair and that would become the chair of someone lost. They left flowers or a message and by the end of the day all the chairs were filled. And then we took it all down.”

帕索维克指着他墙上一幅带相框的“萨拉热窝红线”活动的巨大图片。“当你看到这里有多少把椅子,这条线有多长时,那感觉简直令人难以承受,”他说。“人们失声痛哭。他们来回走着,站在代表着一个已逝生命的椅子前面。他们留下鲜花或者一张卡片,这一天结束的时候,所有椅子都放满了。然后我们会把这些东西拿下来。“

“Sarajevo Red Line” was up for only a single day, and perhaps this transience in memorializing something so eternal contributed to its lasting emotional impact. But the city has struggled to replicate a similar singularity of vision in more permanent civic projects. Many people I talked to cited the dysfunctional structure of Bosnia’s government as perhaps the largest roadblock to establishing a dynamic urban plan for Sarajevo’s future.

“萨拉热窝红线”只展出了一天,或许对这种永恒记忆的纪念越是短暂,人们的心情就越难以平静。不过,对于更加长期的市政项目,这座城市却很难复制出类似的统一愿景。许多人对我说,波黑政府的运转失灵,可能是为萨拉热窝的未来制定一份充满活力的城市规划的最大障碍。

The government was hastily created out of thin air in Ohio in 1995, a byproduct of the Dayton Peace Accords that ended the war. To placate all sides, negotiators partitioned the country along ethnic lines into the Republika Srpska, made up of primarily Bosnian Serbs, and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, made up primarily of Bosnian Muslims and Croats. The Bosnian presidency was turned into a tripartite body with a shifting chairmanship from each of the three ethnic groups.

波黑现任政府是1995年在俄亥俄州仓促建立起来的,是终止了战争的代顿协议的产物。为了安抚各方,谈判官员把这个国家按种族划分为主要由波斯尼亚塞族人构成的塞族共和国,以及主要由波斯尼亚穆斯林和克罗地亚人组成的波黑联邦。波黑主席团变成了三方缔结的机构,三族成员轮流担任主席。

Such an unusual constitutional arrangement was meant to be temporary, a necessary step to ending the years of violence, but in the decades since Dayton the bloated bureaucracy has congealed into an extremely inefficient and corrupt government. The ongoing ideological warfare among the three factions has largely stifled innovation and prevented any kind of comprehensive strategy for the city’s redevelopment, including agreeing on a cohesive urban identity with which to draw in international tourists. Nevertheless, visitors continue to come, and in increasing numbers. According to a government study, tourism in the city rose by 25 percent from 2014 to 2015.

这样不同寻常的宪法安排本应是暂时的,是结束多年流血战争的必要步骤,但代顿协议之后,几十年过去了,臃肿的官僚体制催生出了一个极其效率低下和腐败的政府。目前三个派别的意识形态战争基本上已经扼杀了创新,阻止了这座城市的任何综合发展战略的出台,包括就一个统一的城市身份达成一致,从而吸引外国游客。不过,这里的游客依然不断增长。根据政府的研究数据,2014年到2015年,萨拉热窝的旅游业增长了25%。

This administrative dysfunction was particularly evident when the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina was closed in 2012 because of a lack of governmental support. The museum houses a world-class collection of artifacts from the region, including the famous Sarajevo Haggadah, one of the oldest and most important Sephardic Jewish manuscripts in the world. It is ironic that the National Museum, housed in four neo-Renaissance pavilions built in 1888, largely survived the shelling during the siege only to be shuttered in peacetime by an indifferent administration. In a positive turn of events, the museum finally reopened last month after financing was secured from multiple levels of government.

2012年,波黑国家博物馆因缺乏政府支持而被迫关闭,这尤其突显了政府的管理不善。这家博物馆拥有来自该地区的世界级的艺术品,包括著名的萨拉热窝哈加达(Sarajevo Haggadah),这是世界上最古老和重要的塞法迪犹太人档案之一。最讽刺的是,这座博物馆里有四个建于1888年的新文艺复兴的亭子,它们在围城战役期间基本保留下来,结果却在和平时期被一个冷漠的政府关闭。可喜的是,在获得了各级政府的资金之后,这座博物馆在上个月终于重新开放。

The National Museum is situated in a fascinating neighborhood called Marijin Dvor that marks the transition from Sarajevo’s old town in the east to the weary sprawl of new Sarajevo in the west. As such it contains a collision of buildings from past and present, a snapshot of the city’s current disjointedness, including two of Sarajevo’s new sleek-yet-anonymous shopping malls; the yellow Legoland abomination that is the Holiday Inn, where journalists stayed during the siege; the Bosnian Parliament (rebuilt with Norwegian money); the new fortresslike United States embassy, which spans an entire city block; as well as the city’s Historical Museum (formerly the Museum of Revolution), a graceful 1958 modernist structure that resembles a white cube floating above a platform of glass, cited by many local architects as the most beautiful building in all of Sarajevo.

这座国家博物馆位于Marijin Dvor,这个迷人的街区是东部萨拉热窝老城和西部新萨拉热窝的中间地带,古老和现代的建筑在这里并存,折射出这座城市目前支离破碎的状态,这其中包括萨拉热窝的两座光鲜亮丽却没有名字的购物中心;黄色的乐高乐园似的建筑是一座假日酒店,记者们在围城期间曾住在那里;波斯尼亚议会(用挪威的资金重建);堡垒似的新美国大使馆,占据了整整一个街区的;还有萨拉热窝的历史博物馆(前革命博物馆),这是一栋建于1958年的优雅的现代主义建筑,外形就像是一个浮在玻璃平台上的白色立方体,许多当地的建筑师称它是萨拉热窝最美的建筑。

Behind the Historical Museum, on the shady banks of the Miljacka, is Cafe Tito, a playfully nostalgic establishment where hip Sarajevans go to sip coffee as their children crawl on a collection of old, rusting Partisan tanks and jeeps from World War II. Tito is cool again these days, though his vision of brotherly solidarity (once upon a time 20 percent of Sarajevo, the ultimate mixing pot, identified their ethnicity as “Yugoslav”) seems like a distant dream.

在历史博物馆身后,在米里雅茨河绿树成荫的河岸上,是铁托咖啡馆,这是一个有趣而复古的地方,时髦的萨拉热窝人在这里喝咖啡,让孩子们在二战时期老旧生锈的巴基斯坦坦克和吉普上爬上爬下。铁托的名字如今又常常被人提起,不过他对兄弟般团结的愿景(萨拉热窝这个大熔炉曾有20%的人认为自己是“南斯拉夫人”)似乎是一个遥远的梦。

The Historical Museum houses the city’s only permanent exhibition on life during the siege, featuring many brilliantly improvised tools (a flashlight made of a hand-cranked bicycle light) donated by local citizens. The museum owes its resilience to the superhuman efforts of its eternally optimistic director, Elma Hasimbegovic. “We operate in an idealistic way as a real museum even though we don’t have a budget,” she said. “We depend upon donations from a variety of international sources. We find good people who believe in what we do.”

历史博物馆里陈列着这座城市唯一的围城期间生活风貌展,主要展出了由当地居民捐赠的许多设计精巧的工具(一个用自行车车灯等做成的手电)。这座博物馆之所以能够坚持运营下去,要归功于永远乐观的主任埃尔玛·哈欣贝戈维奇(Elma Hasimbegovic)的巨大付出。“虽然我们没有预算,我们仍然以一家真正的博物馆的理想方式运转。我们找到了一些认同我们事业的好心人。”

Visionaries like Ms. Hasimbegovic and the Red Line-creator Mr. Pasovic seem to hold the key to Sarajevo’s future. It is the persistence and ingenuity of the individual who continues to effect change in the city and in Bosnia and Herzegovina as a whole. It is this same persistence and ingenuity that allowed people to function day after day during the war with limited or no electricity, water, heat or food; to risk their lives to attend candlelit theater shows or hand-operated film screenings; to bend and bend but never to break. And it is this same persistence and ingenuity that give the city its air of buoyant survivalism today.

哈欣贝戈维奇,以及红线活动的策划者帕索维克这样的精英,似乎掌握着开启萨拉热窝未来的钥匙,那就是个体为不断改变这座城市以及整个波黑所展示出的坚持和智慧。正是这种坚持和智慧让人们可以在缺少电、水、暖气和食物的战争时期坚持下去;让人们冒着生命的风险参加烛火照明的剧院演出,或者去观看简陋的电影放映;让人们在困境中百折不弯。也是同样的坚持和智慧,让这座城市有了今天的这种让人充满希望的顽强生命力。

But there is also a new generation of young Sarajevans, born during or after the war, who are blessed with the self-belief of their generation. They see Sarajevo as theirs and are molding the city inspired, not burdened, by the pull of history. One of the most dramatic examples of this can be seen in the Festina Lente pedestrian bridge, completed in 2012, which spans the River Miljacka directly in front of the Academy of Fine Arts, the region’s foremost creative educational institution now housed in a converted evangelical church. The bridge was designed by three students from the academy. Despite their youth, their gravity-defying, loop-de-loop plan of aluminum and steel won an open international competition of over 40 entrants.

然而,萨拉热窝还有了新一代的年轻人,他们出生在战争期间或战争结束后,有着自己的信仰。他们把自己当成萨拉热窝的主人,正在用行动改变着这座城市,历史带给他们的是灵感,而不是负担。一个最显著的例子就是2012年竣工的费斯蒂纳兰特桥(Festina Lente),这座桥横跨米里雅茨河,就在美术学院前面。这所学院是该地区最领先的创意教育学院,目前在一个经过改造的福音派教堂里办公。这座桥由该学院的三名学生设计。尽管资历尚浅,他们以铝和铁为材料的挑战重力的设计方案,在一次公开的国际比赛的超过40个作品中脱颖而出。

“The bridge is a bridge, but in the Bosnian tradition it is also a gateway that you must pass through,” said Bojan Kanlic, 29, one of the designers. Given that the academy is located in a former church, Mr. Kanlic and his partners wanted to play with notions of spiritualism and secularism, of the artist’s potential to transform a city and a society. Mr. Kanlic said that when the bridge was first completed, many in the city rejected its newness, but in the short time since, the bridge has become a beloved symbol of new Sarajevo.

“这座桥不仅是一座桥,在波斯尼亚的传统中,也是人们必须经过的门户,”29岁的博扬·坎利奇(Bojan Kanlic)说。他是这座桥梁的设计师之一。因为学院位于一座旧教堂里,坎利奇和伙伴们想要探索唯心论和现实主义的概念,以及艺术家改造城市和社会的潜力。坎利奇说,当这座桥首次完工的时候,城市中许多人难以接受它的创新,但很快,这座桥已经成为新萨拉热窝的一个亲切的象征。

On warm afternoons you will find a mixture of students, tourists and pensioners lounging inside its helixed gateway. Festina lente is Latin for “Make haste slowly,” a paradoxical phrase that seems to capture that particular Sarajevan mind-set of intensity done at a leisurely pace. “We have no money here, but we have plenty of time,” Mr. Kanlic said. “So we drink lots of coffee and talk about everything we hope to do.”

在炎热的下午,你会看到很多学生、游客和老人,在螺旋结构的入口处。Festina Lente在拉丁语里的意思是“从容地加速”,这个自相矛盾的词汇似乎抓住了萨拉热窝特有的心态。“我们没钱,但是我们有很多时间,”坎利奇说。“因此我们喝很多咖啡,谈论我们想做的所有事情。”

This past summer, on my last night in the city, as I made my final lap down the Ferhadija, I could not help but feel optimistic for Sarajevo’s future. The city is slowly discovering how to present its seductive brand of festina lente to the world. For all of its rich history, this is a story that is being written in the present tense.

今年夏天,我在这个城市的最后一晚,当我最后一次沿着费尔哈迪亚大街漫步,我不禁为萨拉热窝的未来感到乐观。这座城市正慢慢懂得如何向世界呈现自己迷人的从容加速的品牌形象。虽然它以历史丰富著称,但这个故事却是现在进行时。

There is now a point on the Ferhadija, right where the vertices of the Austro-Hungarian section give way to the low-slung alleys of the Ottoman Bascarsija, where a nongovernmental organization has placed a compass rose into the stone walkway with the words: “Sarajevo Meeting of Cultures.” Visitors are encouraged to take selfies of themselves facing East and West and then to spin a rotating arrow that will point them in the direction they should head next. It’s the type of tourist packaging that might come off as gimmicky in the well-trod cities of Western Europe, but in Sarajevo it feels like a welcome signpost, the first line of a poem not yet composed.

如今在费尔哈迪亚大街上有这样一个景点,在奥匈帝国的尖顶和奥斯曼老城区低矮巷子的交界处,一个非政府组织在石板路上画了一个方位刻度图,上面写着:“萨拉热窝,文化交融的地方”。来访者可以面对着东侧和西侧自拍,然后转动指针,按照指针的方向继续前行。这种装置在西欧的城市里可能是一个俗套的设计,但在萨拉热窝,它就像是一个欢迎游人的路标,像是一首未完成诗歌的第一句诗行。

I gave the arrow a spin and followed its instruction, gliding back into the steady stream of people heading from East to West, West to East, from the uncertainties of the past to the open promises of the future.

我拨动了指针,按照它的指引回到了人流中。人们不停地走着,从东向西,从西向东,从过去的不确定性,走向未来的无限可能。

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