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教师又成美国稀缺人才

更新时间:2015-10-3 8:27:42 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Teacher Shortages Spur a Nationwide Hiring Scramble (Credentials Optional)
教师又成美国稀缺人才

ROHNERT PARK, Calif. — In a stark about-face from just a few years ago, school districts have gone from handing out pink slips to scrambling to hire teachers.

加州罗内特帕克——在几年之内情况反转,各个学区从解雇教师转而慌忙招募教师。

Across the country, districts are struggling with shortages of teachers, particularly in math, science and special education — a result of the layoffs of the recession years combined with an improving economy in which fewer people are training to be teachers.

全美各个学区都面临师资短缺,尤其在数学、自然科学和特殊教育。这一状况可以归结于早前经济衰退期的裁员和近期复苏的经济。而当经济向好时,接受教师教育的人数会减少。

At the same time, a growing number of English-language learners are entering public schools, yet it is increasingly difficult to find bilingual teachers. So schools are looking for applicants everywhere they can — whether out of state or out of country — and wooing candidates earlier and quicker.

与此同时,越来越多的英语语言学习者进入公立学校,然而双语教师却越来越难以寻觅。因此,各个学校开始更早更快地在所有可能的地方寻找应聘者,无论是州外或是海外。

Some are even asking prospective teachers to train on the job, hiring novices still studying for their teaching credentials, with little, if any, classroom experience.

一些学校甚至雇佣正在攻读教师资质的学生,并为缺乏课堂教学经验的他们提供在职培训。

Louisville, Ky.; Nashville; Oklahoma City; and Providence, R.I., are among the large urban school districts having trouble finding teachers, according to the Council of the Great City Schools, which represents large urban districts. Just one month before the opening of classes, Charlotte, N.C., was desperately trying to fill 200 vacancies.

据大城市学校理事会(Council of the Great City Schools)透露,目前面临师资紧张的大型城市学区还包括路易维尔(肯塔基州)、纳什维尔、俄克拉荷马城以及普罗维登斯(罗德岛)。距离开学不到一个月,北卡罗来纳的夏洛特市正在拼命填补两百个职位空缺。

Nationwide, many teachers were laid off during the recession, but the situation was particularly acute in California, which lost 82,000 jobs in schools from 2008 to 2012, according to Labor Department figures. This academic year, districts have to fill 21,500 slots, according to estimates from the California Department of Education, while the state is issuing fewer than 15,000 new teaching credentials a year.

在经济衰退期间,全美大量教师下岗,但是加州的情况尤其严重。根据劳工部数字,从2008年至2012年,加州学校失去了82000个岗位。据加州教育局估计,在当前学年各学区需要填补21500个空缺,然而该州的每年只发放不到15000个新教师资格证。

“We are no longer in a layoff situation,” said Monica Vasquez, chief human resources officer for the San Francisco Unified School District, which offered early contracts to 140 teachers last spring in a bid to secure candidates before other districts snapped them up. “But there is an impending teacher shortage,” Ms. Vasquez added, before correcting herself: “It’s not impending. It’s here.”

“我们不再处于一个裁员的局面了,”旧金山联合学区(San Francisco Unified School District)的人力资源主管莫妮卡·瓦斯克斯(Monica Vasquez)说道。该学区在去年春季赶在其他学区之前为140名教师提供了提前录用合同。瓦斯克斯女士补充道:“然而目前面临的是即将到来的师资短缺。”她然后更正自己:“这不是即将到来,而是正在发生。”

With state budgets rallying after the recession, spending on public schools is slowly recovering, helping to fuel some of the hiring. In California, Gov. Jerry Brown persuaded voters in 2012 to pass a sales and income tax measure that raised funding for public schools.

随着经济衰退之后各州预算恢复,公立学校支出缓慢回升,有助于促进雇佣。在加州,州长杰里·布朗(Jerry Brown)在2012年说服选民通过了一项旨在为公立学校筹款的销售和个人所得税提案。

But educators say that during the recession and its aftermath prospective teachers became wary of accumulating debt or training for jobs that might not exist. As the economy has recovered, college graduates have more employment options with better pay and a more glamorous image, like in a rebounding technology sector.

然而教育业者指出在经济衰退期间和之后,未来可能的教师们对增加债务或者为不存在的职位接受教育变得更加谨慎。随着经济复苏,大学毕业生们又拥有更多的职业选择。有些选择能提供更好的薪酬和更光鲜的形象,比如正在重振的科技行业。

And that has led districts here — and elsewhere — to people like Jenny Cavins.

这一状况导致各地学区把目光投向像珍妮·卡文斯(Jenny Cavins)他们。

Ms. Cavins, 31, who once worked as a paralegal and a nanny, began a credentialing program at Sonoma State University here in Rohnert Park less than a year ago. She still has a semester to finish before she graduates. But later this month she will begin teaching third grade — in both English and Spanish — at Flowery Elementary School in Sonoma. Ms. Cavins said she would lean on mentors at her new school as well as her professors. “You are not on that island all alone,” she said.

31岁的卡文斯曾经从事过律师助理和保姆。不到一年以前,她在罗内特帕克当地的索诺马州立大学(Sonoma State University)开始教师资格认证项目。但这个月下旬她将在索诺马的弗拉里小学(Flowery Elementary School)讲授三年级英文和西班牙文。卡文斯说她将同时得到新学校导师和大学教授的指导。“你并不是孤身一人在那个岛上,”她说。

Esmeralda Sanchez Moseley, the principal at Flowery, said she could not find a fully credentialed — let alone experienced — teacher to fill the opening. “The applicant pool was next to nothing,” she said. “It’s crazy. Six years ago, this would not have happened, but now that is the landscape we are in.”

弗拉里小学校长艾斯玛达·桑切斯·莫斯里(Esmeralda Sanchez Moseley)说,她无法找到一个已经获得完全资格认证的教师来填补这个空缺,更别提一个有经验的。“几乎没有应聘者,”她说。“真是疯狂。六年前这种情况不可能发生,然而现在确确实实是我们的处境。”

Before taking over a classroom solo in California, a candidate typically must complete a post-baccalaureate credentialing program, including stints as a supervised student teacher. But in 2013-14, the last year for which figures are available, nearly a quarter of all new teaching credentials issued in California were for internships that allowed candidates to work full time as teachers while simultaneously enrolling in training courses at night or on weekends.

在加州,一个教师候选人在独立接管课堂之前通常必须完成一个研究生阶段的教师资格认证项目,其中包括担任实习教师。但是在有数据的2013至2014年接近四分之一的加州教师资格证都发放给了实习项目学生。这种项目允许学生在全职任教的同时,参加晚间或者周末课程。

In addition, the number of emergency temporary permits issued to allow noncredentialed staff members to fill teaching posts jumped by more than 36 percent from 2012 to 2013.

不仅如此,允许非认证教师填补教职缺口的紧急临时许可在2012至2013年间激增了35%。

At California State University, Fresno, 100 of the 700 candidates enrolled in the teacher credentialing program this year will teach full time while completing their degree.

在弗雷斯诺的加州州立大学(California State University),700名教师资格认证项目的注册学生中有100名完成他们学位的同时,从事着全职的工作。

“We don’t like it,” said Paul Beare, dean of the university’s school of education. “But we do it.”

“我们并不喜欢这样,”该校教育学院院长保罗·贝尔(Paul Beare)说道。“但是我们只能这样做。”

Some educators worry that as school districts scramble to fill empty slots, the quality of the teaching force could weaken.

一些教育业者担忧随着学区慌忙填补空缺,师资的质量会下降。

“There are not enough people who will look at teacher education or being a teacher as a job that they want to pursue,” said Carlos Ayala, dean of the school of education at Sonoma State University.

“没有足够多的人把教师教育或者教书育人视为他们的职业愿望,”索诺马州立大学教育学院院长卡洛斯·阿雅拉(Carlos Ayala)说。

Ashlee Pepin, 31, turned down several opportunities to work as a teaching intern while still earning education credentials at Sonoma State because, she said, she had seen the difference “between a teacher who is passionate and has a lot of skill, and a teacher who is just there.”

31岁的阿什利·派宾(Ashlee Pepin)放弃了若干机会而选择在索诺马州立大学攻读教师资格证的同时在学校里实习。她说这是因为她看到了作为“一名有激情、有才能的教师和一名碌碌无为的教师”之间的差别。

Ms. Pepin, who graduated in June, will begin teaching special education next week at an elementary school in Petaluma, north of San Francisco. “I wanted to make sure I was prepared,” Ms. Pepin said on a recent morning as she sorted through old textbooks in her new classroom.

派宾已经于六月毕业。她将从下周开始在旧金山以北的佩塔卢马的一所小学开始从事特殊教育。“我想确保自己是有备而来的,”最近的一个早晨派宾一边说着一边在她的新教室里整理旧教材。

Recruiters from Oklahoma City have traveled to Puerto Rico and Spain on the hunt for teachers, while in Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district in North Carolina, the superintendent, Ann Blakeney Clark, tells audiences at every community meeting she attends that the schools are desperate to hire. “I’ve gone on to say ‘Everyone in this room knows someone who was a teacher, who is a teacher,’” Ms. Clark said. “‘And I am asking you to email, text or call them and invite them to teach in Charlotte.’”

俄克拉荷马城的招聘人员已经远涉波多黎各和西班牙去寻觅教师,而在夏洛特-梅克伦堡学区,督察安·布莱克尼·克拉克(Ann Blakeney Clark)在每次社区大会上都向观众传达学校招聘的迫切。“我会接着说:‘如果你们知道谁曾经或者现在是教师,’”克拉克说道。“‘请通过电邮、短信或者电话邀请他们来夏洛特任教。’”

Last spring here in Rohnert Park, about 50 miles north of San Francisco, the superintendent, Robert A. Haley, found a creative way to fill a vacancy for an elementary school physical education teacher: He had his daughter’s high school cross-country coach fill in temporarily.

去年春天在旧金山以北大约50英里的罗内特帕克这里,督察罗伯特·A·哈里(Robert A. Haley)创造性地找到了一个填补小学体育教师空缺的办法:他让他女儿高中的越野教练来临时接任。

The coach, David Kimari, 26, who has worked as a home health aide and is studying kinesiology, will continue to teach P.E. this school year at two elementary schools in the district. He will begin taking teacher credential courses next January.

这位26岁的教练大卫·凯马力(David Kimari)曾担任过家庭健康助理,目前正在攻读运动机能学。本学年他将继续在两所本区的小学教授体育。明年一月开始他将学习教师资格认证的课程。

When Mr. Kimari started teaching, administrators gave him binders full of lesson plans left by his predecessors, and he asked a teaching friend in Oakland for advice. “I went into it like ‘Oh, man, I don’t know what I am getting myself into,’” said Mr. Kimari, sporting a tie-dyed bandanna and socks on a recent, scorching afternoon when he had assembled girls from the cross-country team for a summer conditioning session in a state park.

当凯马利开始教学时,行政人员交给他一个前任留下的装满教案的活页夹。同时,他还向一位在奥克兰的教师朋友寻求建议。“我会这样问:‘哥们,我不知道该怎么办了,’”凯马利说。在最近这个炙热的下午,他穿戴着扎染的头巾和袜子集合越野队的女生去州立公园参加夏季适应性训练。

But he said that he realized that, “as long as you are passionate and as long as you can communicate with other people and you don’t give off hostile vibes, you can pick it up along the way.”

但他说她意识到,“只有你充满激情,与别人保持沟通并且克制自己的敌对情绪,你就能一步步掌握门道。”

Linda Darling-Hammond, professor emeritus of education at Stanford University and head of the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, said the United States should plan more for teacher shortages. “Other nations create incentives and supports in order to be able to fill the needs in a much more deliberate and conscious way,” she said.

琳达·达林-哈蒙(Linda Darling-Hammond)是斯坦福大学教育学退休教授,也是加州教师资格认证委员会主管。她说美国应该为师资短缺做更多的计划。“别的国家为了满足这些需求,有意识地创造了激励和支持机制。”

In the near term, teachers may not yet be heralded with the fever pitch of first-round sports draft picks, but qualified candidates are in high demand. Earlier this spring, Ana Margarita Sanchez, a master’s degree student in the education school at Stanford University, chatted briefly with a recruiter from the San Francisco schools at a reception on campus. Two weeks later, the recruiter followed up with a 45-minute telephone interview, offering her a job on the spot.

在最近的这学期,尽管教师们还没有像首轮选秀那般被热捧,但合格的申请者依然供不应求。安娜·玛格丽塔·桑切斯(Ana Margarita Sanchez)是斯坦福大学教育学院的硕士生。今年春天早些时候,她在校园招聘中和旧金山的学校作了简单接触。两周之后,招聘者跟进和她做了45分钟的电话面试,然后当场提供了她工作机会。

“I was definitely taken aback by the intensity,” said Ms. Sanchez, 25, who will be teaching fourth grade at a bilingual elementary school later this month.

“我显然被这热度震惊了,”25岁的桑切斯说。她将在本月下旬开始在一所双语小学教四年级。

“The ball wasn’t really in their court,” she added. “It was in mine.”

“主动权的球并不是在对方的球场,”她补充道。“球在我手里。”

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