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各国利益交错,TPP谈判陷僵局

更新时间:2015-8-5 20:33:39 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Trans-Pacific Partnership Session Ends With Heels Dug In
各国利益交错,TPP谈判陷僵局

WASHINGTON — Tokyo was ready to extend major concessions on American truck tariffs but was blocked by Mexico, which wanted less competition for its own trucks in the United States market.

华盛顿——东京准备在美国卡车关税问题上继续做出重大让步,但遭到了墨西哥的阻挠,因为墨西哥希望减少本国出产的卡车在美国市场上面临的竞争。

Canada held firm on protecting its politically sensitive dairy market ahead of elections in October, but for New Zealand, a tiny country with huge dairy exports, that was unacceptable.

加拿大坚持保护其乳制品市场,因为今年10月该国有一次选举,这个问题存在政治敏感性。但对于大量出口乳制品的小国新西兰来说,这是不可接受的。

And virtually all of the parties hated American protections of pharmaceutical firms, but a compromise on that issue could cost the support of Republicans in Congress.

几乎所有各方都痛恨美国保护制药公司的政策,但如果美国在这个问题上做出妥协,可能就会在国会失去共和党人的支持。

For President Obama, nailing down the largest regional trade accord in history would be a legacy-making achievement, proof that his foreign policy “pivot” to Asia was more than rhetorical — as well as a milestone in international economic cooperation. But Mr. Obama learned last week in his native state of Hawaii that his own administration does not always control its fate.

对于奥巴马总统来说,签订历史上最大规模的区域贸易协定将会是一项影响深远的政绩,证明了他“转向亚洲”外交政策不只停留在口头上——而且也会是国际经济合作的一个里程碑。但奥巴马上周在他的家乡夏威夷发现,他的政府的命运,不见得掌握在自己手上。

Final negotiations over the trade deal, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, are not like a checkers game with Congress, pitting two branches of government and two parties against each other. Rather, all 12 nations are asserting their particular economic and political interests in a multiple-dimension chess match, with one problem often setting off another.

跨太平洋伙伴关系协定(Trans Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)的最终谈判不同于和国会下跳棋,那是政府的两个派系以及两个党派在互相扯皮。而TPP如同一局多人参加的国际象棋比赛,12个国家各自在其中争取其特定的经济和政治利益,一个问题常常会引发另一个。

Whether all of those can be resolved is now a matter of will. But the disagreements are pushing any resolution of the trade deal further into the politically difficult presidential election season in the United States. At least one negotiator suggested privately that it soon may become easier to say “no” than “yes.”

所有这些问题是否可以获得解决,现在已经是一个关乎意志的问题。但是种种分歧已经将就该协议可能达成的任何共识卷入了美国大选季的政治博弈之中。至少有一位谈判代表私下暗示,有可能在不久之后,说“不”就会变得比说“是”更加容易。

“The process of reaching a complicated trade agreement is to start with a huge number of uncertainties and slowly resolve them piece by piece until you can see one or two of the most difficult issues remaining,” said Tim Groser, New Zealand’s trade negotiator. “Now that the undergrowth has been cleared away, we can see clearly that there are one or two really hard issues.”

“达成一个复杂贸易协定的过程就是这样,最开始会有大量的不确定性,然后慢慢一点点地解决它们,直到剩下一两个最困难的问题,”新西兰贸易谈判代表蒂姆·格罗泽(Tim Groser),说。“现在,相对较小的问题已经解决,我们可以清楚地看到还剩一两个重大难题。”

From dairy and sugar to autos and pharmaceuticals, the issues number more than one or two.

从乳制品到食糖,从汽车到药品,问题不只是一两个。

Vietnam is not ready to give up all the advantages that the communist country’s state-owned enterprises enjoy. Japan is still worried about Australia’s legal action against its treatment of marine mammals. And Chile, which already has free trade agreements sealed with each of the other members of the T.P.P., doesn’t see much of a loss in letting it all fall apart.

越南还没有准备好放弃一个共产主义国家国有企业享有的所有优势。澳大利亚就日本对待海洋哺乳动物方式所发起的法律诉讼,仍让日本感到担忧。而智利已经与TPP其他每个成员国签订了自由贸易协定,就算TPP流产它也没有太大损失。

“To get one set of rules across 40 percent of world G.D.P., 33 percent of world trade, 12 disparate countries from Brunei all the way through the United States” was never going to be easy, said Andrew Robb, Australia’s minister of trade and investment.

“这套规则会涵盖全球GDP的40%,全球贸易的33%,以及从文莱到美国这12个完全不同的国家,要达成它”绝非易事,澳大利亚贸易和投资部长安德鲁·罗布(Andrew Robb)说。

Still, Obama advisers and trade experts say, the president remains committed, and United States leadership could help bridge a lot of the divides.

尽管如此,奥巴马的顾问和贸易专家说,总统仍然致力于TPP,而美国的领导力有助于弥补很多分歧。

“It is still central to President Obama’s policy in Asia and the Asia Pacific. It is the centerpiece of his economic legacy,” said Jeffrey J. Schott, a trade expert at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.

“这仍然是奥巴马在亚洲和亚太地区政策的中心。这是他经济政绩的核心,”彼得森国际经济研究所(Peterson Institute for International Economics)的国际贸易专家杰弗里·J·肖特(Jeffrey J. Schott)称。

Mexico’s secretary of the economy, Ildefonso Guajardo, is taking a particularly hard line against Japan’s automotive industry, a position that some negotiators said helped dash any hope of completing the trade deal in Maui.

墨西哥经济部长德丰索·瓜哈尔多(Ildefonso Guajardo)对日本汽车业的态度特别强硬,一些谈判者说,TPP在毛伊岛达成的任何希望几乎都因他破灭了。

At issue is the definition of a car or truck from one of the Trans-Pacific Partnership countries. Mexico wants only vehicles with around 65 percent of their components made in the T.P.P. region to qualify for lower tariff barriers under the deal. That would favor Mexican trucks made with American and Japanese parts. Japan wants that “rule of origin” threshold set closer to 50 percent, favoring its parts suppliers in China and Thailand.

问题在于对“来自TPP成员国的汽车或卡车”的定义。墨西哥希望TPP规定,如果车辆约65%的零部件在TPP成员国生产,它们才有资格享受更低的关税壁垒。这样的规定对墨西哥卡车有利,因为它采用了美国和日本的零部件。而日本希望把“原产地规定”的门槛设置为更接近于50%,有利于它在中国和泰国零部件供应商。

“The auto industry in Mexico is the seventh-largest producer in the world and the fourth-largest exporter,” Mr. Guajardo said late on Friday. “What you can accuse me” of “is putting myself to the front to really push the interest of my country.”

“墨西哥是全球第七大汽车生产国,第四大出口国,”瓜哈尔多上周五晚说。“你可以指责我毫不退缩地为自己的国家争取利益。”

New Zealand and Canada are at loggerheads over dairy. While tiny New Zealand produces just 3 percent of the world’s dairy products, it is the world’s largest dairy exporter. Canada’s government, embattled ahead of parliamentary elections in October, showed little inclination to let New Zealand’s cheese and eggs compete with its own.

新西兰和加拿大则在乳制品问题上争执不下。虽然小国新西兰生产的乳制品只占全球总产量的3%,但它却是世界上最大的乳制品出口国。在10月的议会选举前正四面楚歌的加拿大政府,基本上无意让新西兰的奶酪和鸡蛋与本国的竞争。

Mr. Groser, the New Zealand negotiator, noted that his country was the first to propose a trade accord linking both sides of the Pacific Ocean. He wrote one of the first briefs championing it.

新西兰谈判代表格罗泽指出,新西兰是率先建议要用一个贸易协定来连接太平洋两岸的国家。他曾写了第一份支持这个协定的简报。

“I don’t really feel emotionally in the space of wanting to leave the party. No, we will not be pushed out of this agreement,” he said.

“在感情上,我真的不想退出协定。不,我们不会被排挤出这个协定,”他说。

With so many countries angered by Canada’s closed-door stand on dairy, Ed Fast, Ottawa’s minister of international trade, was left to defend his stance. “Canada came to Maui ready to conclude a T.P.P. We were active, constructive partners at the table,” he said.

加拿大不开放乳制品市场的立场激怒了很多国家,该国国际贸易部长埃德·法斯特(Ed Fast)不得不声明自己的立场。“加拿大准备好了来毛伊岛签订TPP协定。我们在谈判桌上的态度是积极的、建设性的,”他说。

The biggest problem may be intractable differences over intellectual property protections, especially for pharmaceutical companies developing the next generation of medicines known as biologics. A copy of the still-incomplete intellectual property chapter, viewed by The New York Times, shows just how isolated the United States’ position is.

最大的问题可能是TPP成员国在知识产权保护上的棘手分歧,特别是涉及到制药公司研制的下一代药品“生物制剂”的时候。《纽约时报》看到了知识产权章节的一个副本,该章节尚未完成,但显示了美国的立场有多么乏人支持。

In one section, the United States and Japan want language saying a lack of enforcement resources is no excuse for failure to ensure compliance. That position is opposed by New Zealand, Vietnam, Mexico, Peru, Australia, Malaysia and Brunei.

其中一部分里,美国和日本希望表明,缺乏执法资源不是无法确保合规性的借口。这一立场遭到了新西兰、越南、墨西哥、秘鲁、澳大利亚、马来西亚和文莱的反对。

In another section, 11 negotiating nations propose language to ensure judicial authorities have the power to force a company that “abuses enforcement procedures” to compensate a party “wrongfully enjoined or restrained” if a case is lost. Only the United States opposes that.

在另一部分里,有11个国家提议表明,如果一家公司靠“滥用执法程序”赢得了官司,司法机关有权强制它赔偿“遭受了不公正禁止或限制”的一方。只有美国反对这一条。

Much of the intellectual property dispute revolves around the protection of major pharmaceutical companies, which want the United States’ 12 years of data protection on new drugs expanded to the other 11 T.P.P. countries. Republicans in Congress, especially Senator Orrin G. Hatch of Utah, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee and a key ally of the president’s on trade, demand that the White House hold firm.

知识产权纠纷很多都涉及到对大型制药公司的保护,这些公司希望把美国新药品数据12年保护期的做法扩大到其他11个TPP国家。国会共和党人,尤其是犹他州共和党参议员奥林·G·哈奇(Orrin G. Hatch),要求白宫在这件事上不予让步。哈奇是参议院财政委员会主席,也是奥巴马在国际贸易问题上的重要盟友。

But most of the other countries — and most international health groups — oppose that position strenuously. They say it would keep drug prices high, drain government coffers and put new biologic medicines out of reach for the developing world.

但大多数其他国家——以及大多数国际卫生组织——都强烈反对这一立场。他们说,这将导致药价居高不下,国库流失,发展中国家无法获得新的生物制剂药品。

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