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嫩模回潮满足成人趣味,道德吗?

更新时间:2015-8-2 9:44:59 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Underage Models Return to the Runway and Reignite a Debate
嫩模回潮满足成人趣味,道德吗?

It’s a “Cinderella story.” A “fairy tale.” A “total Cinderella moment.”

这是一个“灰姑娘的故事”。一个“童话故事”。“一个典型的灰姑娘时刻。”

But is it?

真是这样吗?

“It’s not a fairy tale, it’s a cliché,” said Sara Ziff, the founder of the Model Alliance, discussing fashion’s favorite new narrative, that of a 14-year-old Israeli who went to Paris in search of a modeling career, met the designer Raf Simons in a Dior store and ended up opening the Dior couture show this month. “It’s once again using girls to sell clothes to women.”

“它不是童话故事,而是一个老套的故事,”模特联盟(the Model Alliance)的创始人萨拉·齐夫(Sara Ziff)在谈论时尚界最热门的新故事时这样说。14岁的以色列姑娘前去巴黎追寻模特事业,在迪奥(Dior)的店铺里遇见设计师拉夫·西蒙斯(Raf Simons),最终成为本月迪奥高级定制时装秀的开场模特。“这是再次利用少女把衣服卖给女人。”

A season after the more mature among us were widely celebrated in ad campaigns like Céline’s (Joan Didion) and Saint Laurent’s (Joni Mitchell), complete with numerous articles (yes, here too) positing fashion’s embrace of the silver dollar, the fashion pendulum has, it seems, swung dramatically in the opposite direction.

在这个时装季之前,更多品牌聘请年长的模特代言,比如思琳(Céline)请琼·迪迪翁(Joan Didion)代言,圣罗兰(Saint Laurent)请乔妮·米切尔(Joni Mitchell)代言,有很多文章(是的,包括我自己的一篇)以为时尚界开始欣赏年长模特的魅力,但是如今看来,时尚界的钟摆开始大幅转向另一个方向。

Aside from Dior’s new find, Sofia Mechetner, Chanel has announced that the face of its eyewear campaign will be Lily-Rose Depp, 16, daughter of Johnny Depp and Vanessa Paradis. And Kaia Gerber, Cindy Crawford’s daughter, has landed a photo spread in the September issue of CR Fashion Book, Carine Roitfeld’s magazine. In one picture, she’s wearing thigh-high leather Versace platform boots; in another, cat-eye makeup, a Prada dress and a pout. She’s 13.

迪奥新发现了嫩模索菲娅·米切纳(Sofia Mechetner),而香奈儿(Chanel)也宣布,约翰尼·德普(Johnny Depp)和凡妮莎·帕拉迪斯(Vanessa Paradis)16岁的女儿莉莉-罗丝·德普(Lily-Rose Depp)将成为香奈儿眼镜的代言人。另外,辛迪·克劳馥(Cindy Crawford)的女儿卡娅·格伯(Kaia Gerber)也为《卡里娜·鲁瓦费尔德时尚杂志》(CR Fashion Book)的9月刊拍摄了横贯两版的照片。在其中一张照片里,卡娅穿着长及大腿的范思哲(Versace)松糕皮靴;在另一张照片里,画着猫眼妆,穿着普拉达(Prada)连衣裙,撅着嘴。她只有13岁。

We’re back in the days of Brooke Shields declaring, at age 15 (and in the 1980s): “You want to know what comes between me and my Calvins? Nothing,” and the 1990s world of the photographer Corinne Day, a teenage Kate Moss and the waif. Almost two decades later, isn’t it time we moved on?

20世纪80年代,当时15岁的波姬·小丝(Brooke Shields)宣布:“你想知道我的卡尔文(Calvin)牛仔裤里面穿了什么吗?什么也没有。”90年代,流行的是摄影师科琳娜·戴伊(Corinne Day)、十几岁的凯特·莫斯(Kate Moss)和消瘦身材。如今,我们又回到那些时代了。在将近20年之后,难道我们不该有点长进吗?

If the increasingly vociferous demands for diversity on the runway should have taught us anything, it is that consumers increasingly want to see models who look like them — all kinds of them. And most consumers of adult fashion are, shocking as it may seem, actual adults.

要求秀台模特多样化的大声疾呼如果真能教会我们些什么,那就是顾客越来越想看到和自己相像的模特——像各种各样的顾客。成人时装的大部分顾客真的是成年人——这听起来也许有点令人震惊。

To be fair, there has been some movement between then and now. There is unquestionably heightened awareness within the industry, not to mention within the law, when it comes to the need to protect underage girls working in a grown-up world. (Still, it is revealing that models are almost always referred to as “girls” by the industry itself; they aren’t called “women.”)

平心而论,与当时相比,现在还是有些进步的。时尚界对保护成人世界里工作的未成年少女的意识已经加强,这一地点毋庸置疑,法律层面的约束也自不必说。(不过,这也说明,这个行业自身几乎总是称模特为“女孩们”,而不是“女人们”)。

Three years ago, all 21 international Vogues signed and published a pact pledging that they would not use models under 16 (though this has occasionally been circumvented, as in the case of Kaia Gerber, who recently appeared in Italian Vogue, the photos used as part of an “age issue”). In 2007, both the Council of Fashion Designers of America and the British Fashion Council issued health guidelines that strongly recommended (in the case of the American group) and required (the British council) that designers use models who were at least 16 for runway shows.

三年前,《Vogue》杂志的全部21个版本签署、公布了一项公约,承诺不会使用16岁以下的模特(不过这个公约偶尔也遭到回避,比如卡娅·格伯最近出现在意大利版《Vogue》上,她的照片被用在一篇关于“年龄问题”的文章里)。2007年,美国时装设计师协会(Council of Fashion Designers of America)和英国时装协会(British Fashion Council)都发布了健康指南,强烈建议(美国时装设计师协会的措辞)和要求(英国时装协会的措辞)设计师在时装秀上选用16岁以上的模特。

In 2013, after lobbying from the CFDA and the Model Alliance, the New York State Legislature passed a law stating that all models under 18 must be treated as child performers, with all the related regulations, from limited work hours to trust accounts, supervision and checkups (and that brands must have a permit from the state Department of Labor, as must the models).

2013年,在美国时装设计师协会和模特联盟的游说下,纽约州立法委员会(the New York State Legislature)通过了一项法律,要求将所有18岁以下的模特当作儿童表演者对待,必须遵守所有相关规定,包括最长工作时间、信托账户、监督和审查(品牌和模特都必须获得纽约州劳工部[Department of Labor]的许可)。

Meanwhile, Ivan Bart, president of IMG models, the agency that represents Ms. Gerber, said it does not allow models under the age of 16 to do runway work. And according to a spokesman for Dior, its 14-year-old, Ms. Mechetner, was chaperoned at all times and has returned to Israel for school, her future relationship with the brand to be determined.

与此同时,格伯的代理公司IMG模特经纪公司的总裁伊万·巴特(Ivan Bart)说,该公司不允许16岁以下的模特参与时装秀表演。据迪奥的一位发言人说,14岁的模特米切纳一直有监护人陪同,并且已经返回以色列上学,未来她与该品牌的关系尚不确定。

Even more, there is increasingly a narrative around models themselves, an effort to move them from nameless mannequins to personalities. Ms. Mechetner is being “sold,” as Michelle Tan, the editor of Seventeen, put it in a phone call, as a “a role model for the boldness of teens.” The Kaia Gerber story is one, as Ms. Tan tells it, of “Hollywood royalty: the next generation,” while Lily-Rose Depp’s fable is about “Uncle Karl introducing her to fashion.” Uncle Karl being Karl Lagerfeld, who once upon a time employed Ms. Depp’s mother as a muse.

而且,为了把模特从无名的人体模型变成有个性的人物,出现了越来越多关于她们的故事。《十七妙龄》(Seventeen)的编辑米歇尔·谭(Michelle Tan)在电话采访中说,米切纳“被描绘成”“十几岁金发少女的榜样”;卡娅·格伯的故事是一个“好莱坞星二代”的故事;关于莉莉-罗丝·德普的传言是“卡尔叔叔把她带进了时尚圈”。卡尔叔叔指的是卡尔·拉格菲尔德(Karl Lagerfeld),他曾聘请德普小姐的妈妈担任缪斯。

And yet, no matter how many parental chaperones and stories are invoked, and no matter that these very young girls are the extreme rather than the rule, this doesn’t solve the public perception problem: that, as Ms. Ziff says, “when you dress children up in makeup and high heels, the implication is that they are sexual objects, and more often than not, that is how the images are read by the public.”

但是,不管有多少父母陪护,不管借用什么故事,不管这些非常年轻的女孩只是极端例子而非常规,都不能解决公众理念的问题。正如齐夫所说,“给孩子们化上妆,让她们穿上高跟鞋,这暗含的意思就是她们是性对象,公众大多是这样解读的。”

To see a Chanel ad in a magazine is not to delve into the model’s back story. To see runway video online is not to see a model’s name and biography. It is to see a girl, like Ms. Mechetner, in a long, slightly transparent Victorian nightgownlike dress. To see a magazine shoot is not to see reality. It is to see the world the stylist and photographer have invented. And therein lies the problem.

看杂志上的香奈儿广告不是要深入了解模特背后的故事。看网上的时装秀视频也不是要看模特的名字和生平介绍。以米切纳为例,是为了看一个女孩身穿半透明的维多利亚时代睡袍式超长连衣裙。看杂志上的照片不是为了看现实生活,而是为了看造型师和摄影师创造出来的世界。这就是问题所在。

For while fashion can do its best, Ms. Tan said, to “not allow the images to exist without making sure there is also a conversation around them,” that conversation can reach only so far (assuming it starts in the first place). Especially when it is taking place in an arena separate from the images themselves. Especially given that the age of a model is not nearly as obvious as her race.

谭说,尽管时尚界可以尽量“在确保能引发关于她们的讨论的情况下才允许这样的形象存在”,但是讨论也就到此为止(假如真的会有讨论的话)。尤其是如果讨论是在与图像无关的情况下发生时。尤其是考虑到模特的年龄还没有种族明显。

I have spent more than a decade watching models walk the runway, and even I have a hard time telling the difference between a fully styled 14-, 16- and 18-year-old.

我观看模特走秀十多年了,连我都很难判断一个全面造型的模特到底是14岁、16岁,还是18岁。

Fashion is in essence an industry based on deception: the promise that if you simply wear this you will look better/cooler/thinner/taller/more powerful than you really are. The suit was created, after all, to craft an illusion of physical perfection. That’s the upside. We all benefit.

从本质上讲,时装业是一个基于欺骗的行业:它承诺,只要你穿上这件衣服,你就会看起来比实际情况更好看、更酷、更瘦、更高或更有气场。毕竟,西服被创造出来就是为了营造一种身材完美的假象。这是积极的一面。我们都从中受益。

But the pretense that these girls are older/more knowing/more seductive than they can possibly be at their age — and that anyone who buys the clothes they are modeling may look like them, when they clearly can’t because they are not in their early teens, a distorted physical time when girls have the bodies of children but the height of an adult — is the downside.

但是,如果制造出这些女孩年龄更大、更知晓世事、更性感的假象,妄称任何人只要穿上她们穿的衣服就能看起来像她们那样(实际上那是不可能的,因为消费主体已经过了那个年纪——十几岁的女孩处在一个独特的年龄段,她们有着孩子的身体和成年人的身高),那就是这个行业消极的一面了。

Unlike their silver counterparts, who are celebrated precisely because they are the age they are and hence held up as inspiration, these kids are celebrated because they don’t look anything like the age they really are.

那些高龄模特得到赞美正是因为她们的年龄,如此高龄还能如此风雅令人鼓舞,而这些孩子得到赞美是因为她们看起来完全不像她们的实际年龄。

No matter how much you take care of them, this disjunction between reality and image is jarring.

不管怎么掩饰,事实和形象之间的不一致还会让人很不舒服。

It’s telling that models themselves, including the most successful ones, have publicly addressed this. Young models are put in a situation “that treats them as adults, and they do not know how to work with that,” Coco Rocha told Anderson Cooper in 2011. “They are just thinking, ‘How do I please you?’ ” She added that she believed 15 was “too young” for the business.

模特们自己,包括那些最成功的模特,也公开谈论这个问题。2011年,可可·罗恰(Coco Rocha)对安德森·库珀(Anderson Cooper)说,年轻模特们“被当作成年人对待,她们不知道该如何应对。她们只会想,‘我该如何取悦你?’”。她补充说,她认为15岁对这个行业来说“太年轻”。

Of her own career, Kate Moss told Vanity Fair in 2012: “I see a 16-year-old now, and to ask her to take her clothes off would feel really weird. But they were like, ‘If you don’t do it, then we’re not going to book you again.’ So I’d lock myself in the toilet and cry and then come out and do it. I never felt very comfortable about it.”

2012年,凯特·莫斯在回顾自己的事业时对《名利场》杂志说:“现在,你让一个16岁的女孩脱掉衣服会感觉很怪。但是当时他们的意思是,‘如果你不脱,我们就不会再用你。’所以我会把自己锁在厕所里,大哭一场,然后出来脱衣服。这种事一直让我觉得不舒服。”

So what is the allure? The imperative of the new, presumably, though you can be new at 21. Pressure, perhaps from the girls themselves.

那么,嫩模的吸引力是什么?可能是时装品牌觉得该用些新人,可是21岁的模特也可以是新人。也许是因为女孩们自己的压力。

“Teenagers are really ambitious these days,” Ms. Tan said. “You can’t fault Sofia for that, though I maybe wish she had waited a bit. It’s a reflection of the moment.”

“如今的青少年真的很有野心,”谭说,“你不能因为这一点指责索菲娅,不过我可能觉得她不应该那么心急。不过她的做法反映了当下的情况。”

Fashion loves to reflect a moment. It also loves transgression; though given that youth-in-women’s-clothing is now a pretty familiar story, it’s not really so transgressive.

时尚很喜欢反映当下的情况。它也喜欢违法,虽然不是很严重,因为如今穿女人服装的女孩很常见。

Maybe it’s finally time it has a new happy ending.

也许现在该有一个新的幸福结局了。

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