您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 风尚 >> 正文

三杯鸡,台湾情与台湾味

更新时间:2015-7-24 9:54:07 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

A Taste of Taiwan
三杯鸡,台湾情与台湾味

The chicken is tender and velvety, a little crisp at its edges, surrounded by coins of ginger and cloves of garlic. The sauce is dark and pungent — soy sauce cut through with aged rice wine and studded with bits of scallion, perfect for ladling onto rice. There is a sweetness in there as well, sugar and sesame against the salt of the soy, with a faint hit of peppery fire. A handful or two of Thai basil added at the end imparts a floral punch.

鸡肉松软细腻,边缘略微酥脆,硬币大小的姜片和蒜瓣环绕周围。酱汁呈深色,气味扑鼻,酱油和陈年米酒贯穿其中,伴有青葱少许——浇一勺到米饭上的绝佳选择。菜肴中同样有甜味,糖和香油中芝麻的味道平衡酱油的咸味,略带一丝辣椒的辛热。出锅前撒的一两把泰国罗勒,带有植物的清香。

The dish is called three-cup chicken, and it makes for a simple and excellent dinner that you can prepare in well under an hour.

这道菜名为三杯鸡,可以成为一顿简单又出色的晚餐,绝不到一个小时就能完成。

It is Taiwanese in origin, which is to say it is cooked across the island and wherever Taiwanese have landed after they’ve left. But like much Taiwanese cooking, the dish has roots in China. The history of three-cup chicken is often traced back to the 13th century, to the execution of the Song dynasty hero Wen Tianxiang. A guard is said to have made the dish for Wen out of the prison’s limited resources on his final night of life, some scant bits of chicken slowly braised in oil, soy sauce, rice wine. One cup of each.

三杯鸡来自台湾,换句话说,在台湾全岛和台湾人离岛后登陆的每一个地方,都会有三杯鸡的踪影。不过,像许多其他台湾菜一样,这道菜的根源在中国大陆。三杯鸡的历史经常被追溯到13世纪,相传与南宋民族英雄文天祥殉国有关。在文天祥生命中的最后一晚,一个守卫据称用有限的食材为他做了这道菜。守卫将仅有的一些鸡肉和油、酱油和米酒一起慢慢炖制。因为调料每样一杯而得名。

“It’s a seminal dish,” Eddie Huang, the jocular restaurateur whose Taiwanese-American childhood in Orlando, Fla., is the subject of the ABC television comedy “Fresh Off the Boat,” told me when I called him. “You’ll be judged on it.” But its origin story, Huang cautioned, is a dangerous one. Cooking three-cup chicken with an equal ratio of oil and soy and rice wine leads to a greasy, unappetizing mess. “If you actually cook it that way, you’ll be in trouble,” he said. “The point is to draw the sugar out of all the ingredients using a little sesame oil, but not a lot.”

“这道菜影响深远,”爱开玩笑的餐厅老板黄颐铭(Eddie Huang)在我给他打电话时说道。这位台裔美国人在佛罗里达州奥兰多市度过童年,美国广播公司的情景喜剧《初来乍到》(Fresh Off the Boat)曾把这段经历作为故事蓝本。“人们会用这道菜来评判你。”但原始的做法,黄颐铭提醒说,有点“危险”。用等比例的油、酱油和米酒烹制三杯鸡,会导致油腻,让人难以瞎眼。“如果你实际上真的这么制作三杯鸡,会陷入麻烦,”他说。“关键在于,用一点香油将糖的味道从所有食材中提出来,不过不要太多。”

Ed Schoenfeld, who owns the RedFarm restaurants in New York and served three-cup chicken at his Auntie Yuan restaurant in the early 1980s, agreed. “Here’s my hit on that,” he said. “I’m old enough that I learned to cook from chefs who learned to cook before the communist revolution in China. And I know that in those days, there was no one cooking food with an inch of oil on top of the dish. It might make you seem hip and groovy. But it’s lazy. It’s not right.”

在纽约掌管RedFarm餐厅的艾德·舍恩菲尔德(Ed Schoenfeld)20世纪80年代早期在他的Auntie Yuan餐馆曾烹制三杯鸡,他也同意这种说法。“关于这道菜,我的发现是,”他说,“我岁数比较大了,教我厨艺的厨师在中国共产主义革命前就学会了如何烹饪。据我所知,那时候没有人在三杯鸡上浇一层油。这可能会使你显得入时,不过也显得太懒。不怎么对。”

Ask 30 people how to make three-cup chicken, and you’ll receive 30 different recipes. Some cooks fry the chicken before braising it; some use more oil, less wine, different blends of soy sauce. (Schoenfeld likes Healthy Boy soy sauce, particularly the mushroom-infused variety.) Others increase the spiciness or lose it entirely, use rock sugar or granulated, light brown or none at all. Debates rage over how thick the sauce should be, over what parts of the chicken to use.

问30个人怎么制作三杯鸡,会收到30种不同的食谱。有些人在炖之前将鸡肉过油炸。有人用油多、用米酒少。酱油的混合比例也不同(舍恩菲尔德喜欢肥儿标牌[Healthy Boy]的酱油,尤其是草菇口味)。有些人放辣椒,有些人不放辣;有些人放冰糖,另一些人放砂糖,或者浅棕色的红糖,还有一些人根本不放糖。酱汁的粘稠程度也始终存在争议,以及,应该选择鸡肉的哪一个部位。

Huang insisted that a clay pot is essential. “You don’t want to overheat the sesame oil in a wok and have it go bitter,” he said. But careful experimentation with woks and Dutch ovens suggests that a clay pot is not strictly necessary. Indeed, Angel Wong, a Taiwanese-American cook in Seattle whose YouTube channel, Angel Wong’s Kitchen, is devoted to explorations of her grandmother’s Taiwanese recipes, said she has never used one. “Honestly, who has a clay pot these days?” she said. “I feel that you get a better sear from the wok. It’s just a presentation thing.”

黄颐铭坚持说,起码要用砂锅。“你不想让香油在炒菜锅中过热,以致变苦,”他说。但是,如果炒锅和荷兰铸铁锅(Dutch ovens )上认真尝试后,可以发现砂锅并不是严格必需的。事实上,出生在西雅图、在YouTube上拥有“安琪·王的厨房”(Angel Wong’s Kitchen,专为发掘台湾奶奶们的食谱打造)的台湾裔美国人安琪·王(Angel Wong)说,她从没用过砂锅。“坦白说,这年头谁用砂锅呢,”她说。“我觉得在炒锅中受热更好。这些都只不过是盛放上的事。”

For others, using bone-in chicken is a must — and always dark meat. Cathy Erway, author of the recent cookbook “The Food of Taiwan,” told me she has been eating three-cup chicken on the bone since discovering the dish as a college student at a Taiwanese restaurant in Boston. But American butchers, she said, don’t often offer bite-size chunks of bone-in chicken. “If you can find wings and separate them, that’ll work,” she said. “You could use whole legs.”

有些人一定要用带骨头的鸡肉,而且是深色肉(主要为鸡腿肉——译注)。 最近出版了美食图书《台湾美食》(The Food of Taiwan) 的韦凯琳(Cathy Erway)对我说,她上大学时在波士顿一家台湾餐馆发现了三杯鸡,自那以后,吃的三杯鸡都是带骨头的。不过她说,美国的肉商不见得每次都会提供小块的带骨鸡肉。“如果你能找到鸡翅,把它们切块,那就可以,”她说。“也可以用整根鸡腿。”

Other families use whole thighs. Mine has done well with those and, in keeping with the traditions of takeout Chinese food for decades in America, with chunks of boneless, skinless thighs as well.

还有一些家庭用鸡大腿肉。我用这种鸡腿肉做可以,不过和美国数十年的外卖中餐传统保持一致,用没有骨头、不带皮的鸡腿肉块做也可以。

As for the Thai basil, more deeply anise-flavored than the sort found most commonly at markets — it, too, is not compulsory. “Use what you can find,” Erway said. “It’s basil!”

至于泰国罗勒,它会比市场上最常见的那种罗勒带有更浓烈的茴芹的香味,不过,这不是必须的。“使用你能找到的任何东西就行,”韦凯琳说,“罗勒!”。

Over the course of the few weeks I spent talking to people about three-cup chicken, I cooked it again and again, making tweaks along the way. What follows is a recipe that is a result of that process, a starting point for all those who wish to make the dish their own.

在和人们谈论三杯鸡的数周里,我将这道菜做了一遍又一遍,不断做出细微的调整。最后研究出一份食谱,对于那些想要把三杯鸡“占为己有”的人来说,这份食谱是一个起步。

A few tablespoons of sesame oil are used to slowly sauté the garlic, ginger and scallions in a wok or clay pot, and then to lightly brown the chicken. A tablespoon of unrefined sugar joins the aromatics, along with a spray of chili flakes, and then a mixture of rice wine and soy. The braise bubbles away for 20 minutes or so, infusing the chicken with an incredible depth of flavor, reducing into something that is more than a glaze, less than a sauce.

用几勺香油将蒜、姜和青葱的香味在炒锅或砂锅中慢慢煸出,使鸡肉变色至金黄。加一勺粗制糖提味。撒一把辣椒碎,放入米酒、酱油。炖约20分钟,待泡沫消失,让鸡肉充分吸收味道,收汁成浆,不要收得像酱那样粘稠。

Cooking is jazz, some say. Flavors are worked like chords, ideas are built out of them, making melodies that can be returned to again and again. Three-cup chicken is an ideal basis for that sort of kitchen composition. Just keep the sesame oil in a minor key.

有人说,烹饪就像爵士乐。味道如和弦,厨师制作出味道,也制作出关于一道菜的理念和想法,值得反复品味的旋律就在其中应运而生。对于这样的“厨房作曲”而言,三杯鸡是一种理想的基础练习。别忘了,不要让香油的“音调”太高。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表