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手把手教你在西班牙如何买房

更新时间:2015-7-20 20:11:26 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

House Hunting in Spain
手把手教你在西班牙如何买房

A SIX-BEDROOM COUNTRY HOUSE NEAR SITGES

锡切斯(SITGES)附近的一栋六居室乡村别墅

$1,017,000 (900,000 EUROS)

101.7万美元(90万欧元,约合人民币631万元)

This six-bedroom four-bathroom house sits on a hill above the small village of Castellvi de Rosanes, about a 30-minute drive inland from either Barcelona or Sitges, the popular coastal vacation spot to the southwest. A small private trail leads from the grounds directly to the traditional Catalan village, population of about 1,000, where there is a bakery, a small market, a butcher, a few restaurants and not much more. The house offers views of the vineyards of Penedès, a well-known winemaking region, as well as the Catalan mountains.

这栋六卧四卫的别墅坐落在西班牙Castellvi de Rosanes镇的一座山上,从巴塞罗那或西南部的海滨旅游圣地锡切斯往内陆开车大约30分钟可达。山下有一条幽静的小路径直通往这个传统的加泰罗尼亚小镇,这里人口在1000人左右,有一家面包店、一个小型市场、一家肉铺和几家餐厅。从这栋房屋可以看见知名的红酒酿造区佩内得斯(Penedès)葡萄园的景观,以及加泰罗尼亚的群山。

About a half-hour’s drive from Barcelona or from the coastal resort of Sitges, the home is on the market for $1,017,000.
这栋房屋距离巴塞罗那(Barcelona)或锡切斯(Sitges)的海滨度假圣约半小时车程,其市场售价为101.7万美元(约合人民币631万元)

Although it has the look of a historic Catalan mansion, the 3,605-square-foot house was built in the 1950s using many traditional regional elements, including red stone walls, exposed oak beams, carved stone and a tile roof. In recent years the home went through an extensive restoration, including the addition of central heating, oak flooring in the bedrooms, a new kitchen and updated bathrooms.

尽管看起来像一座古老的加泰罗尼亚豪宅,但是这栋面积3605平方英尺(约335平方米)的房屋其实是建于20世纪50年代,它采用了当地的许多传统元素,包括红色的石砌墙壁、暴露的橡木顶梁,石雕和瓦顶。近几年来,这栋房屋进行了一次大翻修,包括新增了中央供暖系统、几间卧室里铺了橡木地板、一间新厨房,以及对浴室的返修。

The entrance of the three-story house is framed by a stone arch with tall wooden doors. Steps are trimmed with handmade Spanish tiles; the flooring is Catalan ceramic tiles. A large entrance hall leads to a series of rooms and nooks and crannies. There is a casual dining area near the kitchen, as well as a larger open area on a terrace framed by arches and carved pillars, which can be used as a more formal dining room. In the living room is a large fireplace with a brass hood bearing the coat of arms of the surgeon for whom the house was built, according to the current owner.

这栋三层楼别墅的入口是一座石砌建筑,带有几扇高大的木拱门。台阶上贴着漂亮的西班牙手工瓷砖,地板是加泰罗尼亚陶瓷。一间宽敞的门厅可通往数个房间和其他一些地方。厨房旁边有一处休闲式的就餐空间,平台上还有一处较大的开敞空间带有拱顶和雕花柱子,这里可以用作更正式的餐厅。在这间客厅里有一座带铜罩的大壁炉,上面印着一位外科医生的纹章,据现任屋主说,这栋房屋就是为这位外科医生修建的。

On the second floor are four bedrooms and two bathrooms, including the master bedroom with its own bathroom. The master bedroom offers views of the remains of Castell de Sant Jaume, a castle on a nearby mountain. On the third floor are two bedrooms and a bathroom, with loft space that could be converted into more living space.

二楼有四间卧室和两间浴室,其中包括一间有独立浴室的主卧。从这间主卧可以看见附近山上的圣若梅堡(Castell de Sant Jaume)遗迹。三楼有两间卧室和一间浴室,还有一部分跃层空间,可以改造成另外一处生活区。

The 1.7-acre property is covered in tall pine trees and features manicured Mediterranean gardens with stone trails and a traditional terrace. A stone fence, often reaching as high as four feet, encircles most of the property. Below the house and main garden are a swimming pool and a terrace, which offers sunset views. There is also a four-car garage. The surrounding hills are covered with hiking trails, pine trees, olive and almond trees, wild asparagus and mushrooms.

这处占地面积1.7英亩(约6880平方米)的房产周围种有许多高大的松树,还带有修建整齐的地中海式花园,其间有几条石板小径和一处老式的平台。屋外有一道高达四英尺(约1.2米)的石篱笆围起了这片房产。该房屋和主花园的下面是一座游泳池和一处平台,从那里可以看日落。这座别墅还带有一间四车位的车库。周围的山坡上到处都是可供徒步的小径,以及松树、橄榄树和扁桃树,还有野芦笋和蘑菇。

The house is currently offered as a short-term rental for part of the year, with prices ranging from about $3,800 to $5,400 a week, depending on the season.

这栋房屋每年都会短期出租一段时间,租金从每周大约3800美元(约合人民币2.4万元)至5400美元(约合人民币3.4万元)不等,具体视季节而定。

Sitges is known for its long beaches and lively night life during the summer season. Regular train and bus service connects the town to Barcelona, including direct buses from Barcelona’s El Prat international airport.

锡切斯以长长的海滩和夏季活跃的夜生活而著称。定时定点的列车和巴士服务把这座小镇与巴塞罗那连接了起来,其中包括直达巴塞罗那普拉特(El Prat)国际机场的巴士。

Although several large homes have been built in the Castellvi de Rosanes area in recent years, the village retains its local charm, said Rachel Haslam, director of the Sitges office for the real estate agency Lucas Fox, which is listing the property. “It’s not like it’s a big tourist hub. It’s for somebody who is looking for a more authentic experience.”

代理了该房产的Lucas Fox房地产公司的锡切斯办事处主管雷切尔·哈斯拉姆(Rachel Haslam)说,虽然近几年来在Castellvi de Rosanes地区兴建了数座大型豪宅,但这座小镇依然保留着自己的本地特色。“这里与大型旅游中心不同。这里更适合那些希望体验当地生活的人。”

MARKET OVERVIEW

市场概况

Spain’s property market was hard hit by the financial collapse in 2008, and it has been slow to recover. While some areas are starting to see slight price increases, the average home price in Spain was down 3.6 percent in May compared with a year earlier, according to Tinsa, the valuations company.

西班牙的房地产市场在2008年的金融危机中受到了重创,后来一直恢复得比较缓慢。虽然有些地区已经看到房价有所上涨,但是根据评估公司Tinsa的数据,西班牙五月份的平均房价与去年相比已经下降了3.6%。

In Sitges, which is a popular vacation spot, prices have fallen 30 percent to 40 percent since 2008, agents estimate. But agents have seen an increase in activity in recent months.

据一些代理人估计,在度假胜地锡切斯,房价在2008年之后下降了30%至40%。但最近几个月,一些代理人已经看到房地产销售有所增长。

“Buyers are realizing the market has hit rock bottom,” Ms. Haslam said. Most of the sales activity has focused on homes priced to reflect the decreases in recent years, she says.

“买家们逐渐意识到房地产市场已经跌到了谷底,”哈斯拉姆说。大部分的销售活动都集中在那些价格反映了近些年市场颓势的房屋上,她说。

“Getting owners to adjust their price” has been the biggest challenge, Ms. Haslam said. “Generally when an owner does that, places sell.”

“让业主们降价”一直是难度最大的挑战,哈斯拉姆说。“一般来说,如果业主做到了,那么他的房子也就卖出去了。”

In some cases, there is a wide range of prices for similar homes. Some owners have been marketing their homes for three or four years and refuse to lower the price, said Damián Peña, director of the Sitges office for Engel & Völkers, a property company.

在有些情况下,相似的房产售价却大不一样。Engel & Völkers房地产公司锡切斯办事处的主管达米安·佩纳(Damián Peña)说,有些业主已经将他们的房产推销了两三年,所以拒绝降价。

“On the other side there are similar properties which are being consistent with the market price, and the price they are asking for the proprieties is the real price,” based on market conditions, Mr. Peña said.

“另一方面,有些相似的房地产始终与市场价格保持一致,而且业主们的要价也是基于市场条件的实价,”佩纳说。

The bulk of the sales activity for the Sitges area is in apartments priced at 300,000 to 500,000 euros (about $339,000 to $565,000) and detached homes from 750,000 to 1 million euros ($847,500 to $1.13 million), Mr. Peña said. Investors have started to return to the market, with real estate returns looking more attractive than the yields offered by banks, but that has not translated into higher valuations.

锡切斯地区的大宗房地产销售活动集中在售价介于30万欧元至50万欧元(大约33.9万美元至56.5万美元,约合人民币210万元至351万元)之间的公寓和售价介于75万欧元至100万欧元(84.75万美元至113万美元,约合人民币526万元至701万元)之间的独立住宅,佩纳说。投资者们已经逐渐回到市场中来,而房地产的回报率似乎比银行的回报率更有吸引力,但这样的现象还没有导致更高的房产估价。

“This situation has led to an increase in buying activity but we still have not noticed the increase in prices,” Mr. Peña, said. “The logical tendency is that the prices will start to rise next year.”

“这样的情况导致了购买活动增加,但我们仍然没有发现价格上涨,”佩纳说。“合理的推测是,房价将于明年开始上涨。”

WHO BUYS IN SPAIN

谁在西班牙买房

With the Spanish economy struggling, foreign buyers are driving sales in most areas. In Sitges, more than 90 percent of the buyers are foreigners, agents say.

由于西班牙的经济状况仍未好转,在大多数地方推动房地产销售的仍然是一些外国买家。房屋中介说,在锡切斯,超过90%的买家都是外国人。

British buyers dominate the market, but French, Italians, Belgians and Germans are also prevalent, according to the agents. There has also been an uptick in interest from United States buyers, with the dollar strengthening against the euro, they say.

据那些代理人说,英国买家在西班牙房地产市场中占了大多数,但是法国、意大利、比利时和德国买家也很多。他们还表示,由于美元兑欧元走势强劲,美国买家的兴趣也在不断上升。

Besides retirees, most buyers are people looking for a second home or property they can rent to tourists, agents say. Sitges is also a popular destination among gay travelers and home buyers.

代理人说,除了一些退休者,大多数买家都是为了寻找第二个家,或为了购置房产出租给游客。锡切斯在那些同性恋游客和买房者当中也是个热门的目的地。

BUYING BASICS

购买基本条件

To buy property in Spain, a noncitizen must first obtain a tax identification number, known as an NIE for its Spanish acronym. The identification number is necessary to open a bank account and complete any property purchase agreement. When a deal is reached, the buyer puts down a deposit and signs a reservation contract. The deposit is typically nonrefundable, and it is important to include language in the reservation contract to cover any contingencies, such as the availability of financing, according to Raymundo Larraín Nesbitt, a lawyer based in Marbella, Spain.

要在西班牙买房,非西班牙公民必须先获得一个税务标识号,其名称在西班牙语中缩写为NIE。购买者必须具备该标识号才能开立银行账户,然后才能完成任何房地产购买合约。交易达成的时候,买家要支付一笔订金,并签署一份预订合同。据西班牙马贝拉(Marbella)的一位律师Raymundo Larraín Nesbitt说,这笔订金通常不会退还,而且在合同中务必要写明所有可能的应对措施,比如可用资金状况。

While it is not mandatory to use a lawyer for the transaction, a lawyer is essential to avoid land mines in the process, Mr. Larraín said. A lawyer can check the property’s history, avoid potential problems in the contractual language and ensure there are no liens on the property. It is often best to choose your own lawyer, not one recommended by the real estate agent, who might face a conflict of interest, he said.

Larraín说,虽然西班牙的房地产交易并不要求聘请律师,但要在交易过程中避开雷区,请一位律师是非常必要的。律师可以审核该房产的历史明细,避免合同措辞中可能出现的问题,并确保该房产没有留置权。所以,最好选一位你自己的律师,而不是房地产代理人推荐的律师,否则这位律师有可能会面对利益冲突,他说。

Although banks are still very conservative, mortgages are available for noncitizens with strong credit, but only for a maximum of 70 percent of the purchase price. There are few limitations on ownership and construction, except in coastal zones.

尽管银行方面仍然非常保守,但信誉良好的非西班牙公民依然可以申请按揭贷款,不过最高只能按揭该房产购买价的70%。除了在沿海区域,房地产交易对业主身份和建筑施工几乎没有限制。

During the boom years, from 2000 to 2008, many foreigners unwittingly purchased illegally built homes constructed without the proper planning permission; in November two such homes owned by British couples outside the town of Cantoria in Andalusia were demolished. For preconstruction or off-plan deals, a buyer should always secure a copy of the legal License of First Occupation, which is meant to confirm that the property has complied with local regulations. Many lenders these days are also requiring proof of the License of First Occupation for resale properties.

在2000年至2008年市场繁荣期间,许多外国人很不明智地购买了非法修建的房屋,那些房屋在施工过程中没有得到相应的规划批准;去年11月,两栋位于安达卢西亚坎托利亚镇外、业主是一对英国夫妇的此类房屋遭到了拆除。对于审批前预先建造的房屋,或在规划外违建的房屋,买家应该始终确保该房屋有一份合法的第一居住许可证(License of First Occupation),这意味着要确认该房产是否符合当地的法规。近来,许多贷款银行也要求审核二手物业的第一居住许可证。

In 2013, Spain launched a “Golden Visa” program, offering residency status to noncitizens who invest at least 500,000 euros (about $565,000) in property. But the program is complex compared with similar programs in other countries and has had little impact on the market, Mr. Larrain said.

2013年,西班牙启动了一项“黄金居留许可”计划,对那些在房地产领域投资了至少50万欧元(大约56.5万美元,约合人民币351万元)的非西班牙公民提供居民身份。但是,与其他国家的类似计划相比,这项计划过于复杂,因此对市场的影响微乎其微,Larrain说。

“The terms are so stringent it hasn’t worked as intended,” he said.

“那些条款太严格了,所以没起什么作用,”他说。

WEBSITES

网站

Sitges tourism site: visitsitges.com/en

锡切斯旅游网:visitsitges.com/en

佩内得斯旅游网:enoturismepenedes.cat/en

LANGUAGES AND CURRENCIES

语言和货币

Spanish; euro (1 euro = $1.13)

西班牙语;欧元(1欧元=1.13美元,约合人民币7元)

TAXES AND FEES

税费

On purchases of resale property, there is a transfer tax, which is generally about 7 percent of the purchase price, depending on the region. Agent fees typically range from 3 percent to 8 percent and are usually paid by the seller, although the purchase price often includes the fee. Buyers should also be prepared for legal fees, notary expenses and a registration fee, which might add another 1 percent to the purchase costs. The local government will also charge a Plusvalía Tax, which can add another 1,000 euros to a typical purchase, Mr. Larraín said.

购买二手房产需缴纳一项转让税,通常为购买价的7%,根据地区不同略有差异。代理费从3%至8%不等,通常由卖方支付,尽管购买价往往已经包含了这项费用。买家们还应该准备一部分律师费,公证费和注册费,这大概会让购买成本再增加1%。Larrain说,当地政府还会收取一项土地增值税(Plusvalía Tax),因此每笔交易通常会额外增加1000欧元(约合人民币7019元)。

Once a house is purchased, the annual property taxes imposed by the local government typically range from 0.4 percent to 1.1 percent of the property’s appraised value. Owners may also be subject to a “wealth tax” imposed on assets and a personal income tax if the property is generating income as a rental, with rates varying from region to region.

买下房产之后,当地政府每年征收的房地产税通常介于该房产估定价值的0.4%至1.1%之间。如果该房产有租金收入的话,业主们可能还要缴纳一项针对资产征收的“财富税”和个人所得税,这项税率视各地情况而定。

For nonresidents of the European Union selling property, there is typically a 24 percent capital gains tax, Mr. Larrain said. Under law, if the seller is not a Spanish citizen, the buyer is required to place 3 percent of the agreed sales price in an account with the Spanish Tax Office, to ensure the seller pays the capital gains tax. Buyers should be aware of a complementaria or supplementary tax, which might be charged six to 12 months after buying the property, if the local tax office concludes the taxes were underpaid in recent years, Mr. Larraín said.

Larrain说,对于出售房地产的非欧盟居民,通常有一项24%的资本利得税。根据法律规定,如果卖方不是西班牙公民,那么买方要将协议销售价的3%存入西班牙税务局的一个账户,以此确保卖方会支付这项资本利得税。买方应该注意,如果当地税务局认为近年来的税收过低的话,那么在买房之后的6至12个月内,他们还会对该房产征收一项附加税。

CONTACT

联系方式

Rachel Haslam, Lucas Fox, (011) 34 935 952 550; lucasfox.com

Rachel Haslam, Lucas Fox, (011) 34 935 952 550; lucasfox.com

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