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更新时间:2015-7-19 10:00:06 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Fur Is Back in Fashion and Debate

Even by the standards of Fendi, the Roman house that once sent mink coats glistening with 24-karat gold down the runways, its upcoming “haute fourrure” show on Wednesday counts as a statement: the first fur-only extravaganza by a major design label during the Paris haute couture shows.


If there was still any question that fur was back in fashion, and that the animal rights lobby had lost the luxury battle, the show would seem a definitive answer.


Fendi plans an all-fur haute couture show in Paris.

Yet Fendi executives declined to speak about the show, which coincides with Karl Lagerfeld’s 50-year anniversary with the brand, or fur in general. They were not the only ones.

但是芬迪的高层拒绝谈论这场时装秀。它举办之时,正好是卡尔·拉格菲尔德(Karl Lagerfeld)在芬迪供职(或者说他与皮草打交道)50周年之际。不过,芬迪不是唯一一家推出皮草的公司。

Designers like Michael Kors, Jean Paul Gaultier, and Jeremy Scott of Moschino have turned fur into a runway star over the course of recent seasons, rebranding this holdover from the country club 1950s as young, hip, fashion-forward and even environmentally sustainable.

在最近几个时装季上,迈克·高仕(Michael Kors)、让·保罗·高缇耶(Jean Paul Gaultier)以及Moschino的杰里米·斯科特(Jeremy Scott)等设计师已经把皮草变成秀台明星,把这个来自20世纪50年代乡村俱乐部的古董重塑出年轻、时尚、前卫、甚至环保的形象。

But each, through representatives, declined requests to address the topic, as did several other prominent designers, fashion editors and even fashion bloggers.


That’s the curious state of fur in 2015: So many people seem happy to sell it and show it, but nobody wants to talk about it.


“Fur has always been a hot-button issue in fashion, and now more than ever because the consumer has the ability to research and decide for themselves where they want to stand,” said Robert Burke, founder of the luxury consultancy in New York bearing his name. “It is really the one area where money and ethics converge in fashion.”

“皮草一直是时尚界的热点话题,现在更是如此,因为消费者能够做调查,自己决定要站在哪边,”纽约罗伯特·伯克奢侈品咨询公司(Robert Burke)的创始人罗伯特·伯克说,“真的只有在这个领域,金钱和道德在时尚界交锋。”

In 1996, when an activist tossed a dead raccoon on Anna Wintour’s lunch plate at the Four Seasons, it seemed fur may going the way of the whalebone corset. But over two decades later, 73 percent of this year’s 436 shows in New York, Paris, Milan and London featured fur, according to Saga Furs, the Finnish auction house.

1996年,在四季饭店(Four Seasons),一个活动人士把一只死浣熊扔到了安娜·温图尔(Anna Wintour)的午餐盘上,皮草似乎要走上鲸骨胸衣的消亡之路。但是20多年后,据芬兰拍卖公司世家皮草(Saga Furs)的统计,今年在纽约、巴黎、米兰和伦敦举行的436场时装秀中,有73%是以皮草为特色的。

Though many retailers still won’t touch fur, the number of fur outerwear products in stores (including faux fur and shearling) jumped by 74 percent as of November, compared with the previous year, according to Editd, which tracks fashion retail data.


Once consigned to special departments, fur can now be found in ready-to-wear collections sold throughout department stores, said Nick Pologeorgis, a New York furrier who has made pieces for many designers, including Mr. Kors and Zac Posen.

纽约皮货商尼克·保罗乔治斯(Nick Pologeorgis)给很多设计师制作皮草片料,包括迈克·高仕和扎克·珀森(Zac Posen)。他说,以前皮草被安排到特殊的服装部,现在在百货商场各处的成衣系列里都能看到皮草。

“We sell in specialty boutiques like Otte and Scoop, where young people shop,” Mr. Pologeorgis said.


To next-generation designers such as Jason Wu, 32, one of the few willing to openly discuss fur, the pelt is not a political statement, but just another material, like wool or silk, that is a canvas for his imagination.

32岁的吴季刚(Jason Wu)是少数几个愿意公开谈论皮草的设计师之一。对他这种新生代设计师来说,毛皮不是政治宣言,只是一种材料,和羊毛或丝绸一样,是他施展想象力的画布。

“I always love to look for things that are traditional and classic and reimagine it through my lens, for my generation,” Mr. Wu said.


With advanced techniques for dyeing, shaving and shearing to alter texture, fur is now an all-season fabric, he said. His 2016 resort collection for spring, for example, includes a pink fox fur powder-puff coat combining sheared fox with natural fox.


Yet the anti-fur contingent remains vociferous.


Dan Mathews, the senior vice president for media campaigns at People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, noted that young designers are courted aggressively by the industry, which sponsors student design competitions and lavishes young designers with free samples and junkets.

善待动物组织(People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals)的媒体活动高级副主管丹·马修斯(Dan Mathews)指出,皮草业对年轻设计师大献殷勤,他们主办学生设计竞赛,向年轻设计师慷慨赠予免费样品,并提供公费旅游。

“The fur trade focuses on young designers like PETA focuses on young consumers,” he said. “It’s a tug of war that has been going on for years, which explains why fur is still visible on runways but not so much in retail. For the average young person, fur is about as desirable as acne.”


The fur trade likes to trumpet the fact that fur is a more than $40 billion industry globally, according to a 2014 study commissioned by the International Fur Federation. But while the federation does not break down demand by region, Frank Zilberkweit — the chairman of the Polar Group, which owns the Englisher furrier Hockley — estimated that China may account for as much as 80 percent of the market (Russian demand, once robust, has fallen since the recent ruble crisis, he said).

皮草业喜欢宣扬这个事实:据2014年国际皮毛协会(International Fur Federation)委托进行的一项调查称,在全球范围内,皮草是一个超过400亿美元的产业。虽然国际皮毛协会没有按区域分析需求量,但是据拥有英国皮毛公司霍克利(Hockley)的Polar Group集团主席弗兰克·泽尔伯克维特(Frank Zilberkweit)估计,中国可能占据全球市场的80%(他说,由于近期的卢布危机,一度旺盛的俄罗斯需求量不断下滑)。

In New York, fur — formerly a status purchase for Park Avenue matrons in full-on Blackglama minks — now pops up more casually and sporadically in rabbit-fur mukluks, or a fox-trim Prada clutch, or a Canada-goose coat with a coyote-trimmed hood.


This wider acceptance is likely in part because of the fur trade’s efforts to change perceptions that it is unnecessary, indulgent and an affront to nature.


The Fur Council of Canada, for instance, has a website, furisgreen.com, promoting the premise that sustainably-produced fur from farm-raised mink or wild-sourced beaver is a renewable resource, while petroleum, the basis of synthetic fur, is not. As Alan Herscovici, vice president of the council, said, “there will be fur long after the last oil wells are empty.”

比如,加拿大皮毛联合会(The Fur Council of Canada)有个网站furisgreen.com,它宣传这种观点:用农场饲养的貂或野生海狸制作的皮毛是可再生资源,而人造皮毛的来源石油不是可再生资源。就像该联合会副主管艾伦·赫尔斯科维奇(Alan Herscovici)所说,“在最后一口油井抽干之后,皮草仍将长期存在。”

(Opponents cry “greenwashing,” countering such claims with studies, like one from a Dutch consultancy, CE Delft, in 2011, indicating that fur production has a higher environmental impact than common textiles in terms of climate change and toxic emissions.)

(反对者认为这是皮草业在“漂绿”自己,他们用一些研究批驳这样的说法,比如荷兰咨询公司CE Delft2011年进行的一项调查表明,从气候变化和有毒物质排放角度讲,皮草生产比普通纺织品对环境的影响更大。)

The industry has also labored to promote greater transparency in sourcing, a concept that got a push in 2010 when President Obama signed the Truth in Fur Labeling Act, which requires that each fur piece, regardless of cost, specify its species and country of origin.

皮草行业还极力宣传如今皮毛的来源更为透明。这一概念在2010年得到推动。当年,奥巴马总统(President Obama)签署了《毛皮制品标签法案》(Truth in Fur Labeling Act),要求所有的毛皮制品,不管价格高低,都要标明物种和产地。

Designers like Mr. Wu acquire their pelts from Saga, which emphasizes the “traceability” of its furs to farms that meet the Saga Furs certification program, started in 2005, to establish minimum standards of animal health and breeding conditions.


With increased dialogue about fur, the topic has become not just a rallying cry, but a debate. Some see vintage fur as acceptable, since the animals have long been dead.


Others, including even the environmentalist site Treehugger, seem willing to tiptoe into fur, if it is sourced from roadkill or animals that died of natural causes or were culled as pests, like the creations of British designer Jess Eaton (her rat-fur bolero jacket was one signature piece).

其他人,甚至包括环保网站Treehugger,似乎愿意小心翼翼地支持皮草,前提是这些皮草来自路毙的或自然死亡的动物,或者是作为有害物种被扑杀的动物,例如英国设计师杰丝·伊顿(Jess Eaton)的创作(她的鼠皮波雷若夹克是一件标志性作品)。

For many, it seems, fur has become just another where-do-you-draw-the-line ethical issue. As Mr. Wu put it, “some people can choose to be vegetarian, some people are not. Some people don’t use leathers and furs, and some people do.”


Not everyone is so sanguine, perhaps still fearing reprisals from the animal rights lobby, which has not disappeared. Protests outside fashion tents may have died down, but groups like PETA have opened the battle on new fronts, like social media.


The group’s gruesome video expose of fur farming practices in China, narrated by the actress Olivia Munn, was viewed over 9 million times on Facebook and received over 83,000 shares in February 2013. (China has become a major source of fur, supplying 35 million mink pelts in 2014 alone, according to the International Fur Federation.)

2013年2月,善待动物组织发布了一个可怕的视频,由女演员奥利维娅·穆恩(Olivia Munn)旁述,揭露了中国毛皮饲养业的行为。这个视频在Facebook上被观看了900多万次,被转发8.3万次(据国际皮毛协会称,中国已经成为一个重要的毛皮产地,仅2014年就供应了3500万件貂皮)。

Over the years, PETA has marshaled an army of sympathetic designers: Stella McCartney, Calvin Klein, Tommy Hilfiger and Vivienne Westwood, among others. The organization also rallies celebrities (Pink and Ricky Gervais lent their voices to “Stolen for Fashion,” one of the group’s anti-fur ads) to assist in “fur shaming.”

多年来,善待动物组织集结了一批对此表示同情的设计师,包括斯特拉·麦卡特尼(Stella McCartney)、卡尔文·克莱恩(Calvin Klein)、汤米·希尔费格(Tommy Hilfiger)和薇薇安·韦斯特伍德(Vivienne Westwood)。该组织还召集名人(平克和里基·热尔韦[Pink and Ricky Gervais]为该组织的反皮草广告《因时尚遭窃》[Stolen for Fashion]献声)支持“皮草耻辱”(fur shaming)活动。

Just three years ago, Kim Kardashian, who has a fondness for minks, got flour-bombed at a perfume introduction by a woman, who allegedly shouted, “Fur hag!”

就在三年前,喜欢貂皮的金·卡戴珊(Kim Kardashian)在一次香水发布会上被一个女人泼面粉,据说那个女人对她大喊:“皮草女巫!”

Whether activists create a similar spectacle on Wednesday, when Fendi stages its show, remains to be seen.


But they are facing a different climate: one in which even Ms. McCartney, one of fashion’s most vocal animal rights activists, joined the recent faux-fur boom by presenting a full line of sumptuous faux-fur coats in her autumn and winter collection unveiled this March in Paris, a notable foray into anything resembling fur.


It wasn’t an easy decision, she said.


“For years, we were looking at fake furs, but it never felt like the right message for us to promote the look of fur,” Ms. McCartney wrote in an email. With dramatic improvements in the look and feel of synthetics, she said, “we finally found something that looks great and is consistent with our philosophy on luxury and cruelty free fashion.”


“What was key for us was to really be able to capture luxury and richness,” Ms. McCartney added.


If not raccoons.