您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 商业 >> 正文

俄罗斯天然气公司面临欧盟反垄断指控

更新时间:2015-4-22 9:25:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Europe Is Expected to Charge Gazprom in Antitrust Case
俄罗斯天然气公司面临欧盟反垄断指控

BRUSSELS — Margrethe Vestager, Europe's antitrust chief, is expected Wednesday to charge the Russian gas exporter Gazprom with abusing its dominance in natural gas markets to raise prices and quash competition.

布鲁塞尔——欧洲反垄断事务负责人玛格丽特·韦斯塔格尔(Margrethe Vestager)预计会于周三指控俄罗斯天然气出口商俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom,简称俄气)滥用在天然气市场的主导地位,以达到提价和打压竞争的目的。

The move should please countries like Lithuania and the United States that have been pushing authorities in Brussels to crack down on Gazprom, a state-controlled company that the Kremlin depends on for significant export earnings. Overall, the European Union depends on Russia for one-third of its natural gas.

此举应该会让一直催促布鲁塞尔当局制裁俄气的立陶宛和美国等国感到满意。俄气是一家国有公司,克里姆林宫的大量出口收入都依赖它。总体上,欧盟三分之一的天然气依靠俄罗斯。

The move was confirmed by two people with knowledge of the case, who spoke on condition of anonymity because such decisions are confidential. Gazprom in Moscow said it “cannot comment before any documents are received.” A spokesman for Vestager declined to comment.

了解此事的两名人士证实了这一消息。因为这类决定属于机密,两人要求匿名。莫斯科俄气称“无法在收到任何文件之前置评”。韦斯塔格尔的发言人拒绝发表评论。

Europe is Gazprom's most important and lucrative market by far, despite a huge 30-year deal signed last year with China to ramp up Russian gas sales there. The price China will pay Gazprom has never been announced but is believed to be far below the European rate.

去年,为了增加俄罗斯天然气在中国的销量,俄罗斯与中国签署了一项有效期达30年的协议。尽管如此,欧洲到目前为止仍是俄气最重要、最有利可图的市场。中国付给俄气的价钱从未被公布,但据信远低于欧洲的价格。

Gazprom's business model involves opaque contracts that often restrict onward sales to third countries. Any concerted push by the EU to force the state-controlled energy giant to change that model will be seen by Moscow as opening a new front in what it already views — after the imposition last year of economic sanctions over the Ukraine crisis — as the West's “economic war” against Russia.

俄气的商业模式涉及不透明合同,常常包含禁止转售给第三国的条款。在去年因乌克兰危机而遭到经济制裁后,俄罗斯认为西方对俄罗斯发起了一场“经济战”,欧盟采取任何行动试图强迫该国有能源巨头改变这一商业模式,都会被莫斯科视为开辟了一条新战线。

Russia, its economy battered by the twin blows of sanctions and low global oil prices, had hoped for an easing of relations with Europe when sanctions come up for review this summer, but it now confronts a further struggle to preserve the position of its biggest single company.

经济遭到制裁和全球油价走低双重打击的俄罗斯,本希望在今夏相关制裁接受审核时能缓和与欧洲的关系,但现在,为维护其最大公司的地位,俄罗斯又面临着另一场斗争。

A European investigation of Gazprom has been underway for four years, with a series of negotiations between Brussels and Gazprom failing to produce a settlement. But the European Commission was wary of bringing formal charges.

欧盟对俄气的调查已进行了四年,布鲁塞尔与俄气之间的一系列谈判均未能实现和解。但欧盟委员会(European Commission)对提出正式指控颇为谨慎。

One European concern was that an antitrust action could prompt Moscow to harden its line on Ukraine, as the West sought to resolve the fighting between Russian-backed separatists and the government in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.

欧盟的一个担心是,在西方寻求解决俄罗斯支持的分离分子与乌克兰首都基辅的政府之间的争端之际,反垄断行动可能会促使莫斯科在乌克兰问题上采取更强硬立场。

Gazprom's willingness to wield its power was illustrated by its stopping the provision of fuel to Ukraine in midwinter “gas wars” in 2006 and 2009, which led to shortages in Europe.

俄气曾分别在2006年和2009年仲冬的“燃气战”中停止对乌克兰的供应,导致欧洲燃料短缺。这说明在需要动用自己的力量时,俄气是毫不含糊的。

The decision would be Vestager's second big move in a week. Last Wednesday she filed formal charges accusing Google of abusing its dominance in the market for online search in Europe.

这一决定将是韦斯塔格尔一周内的第二个大动作。上周三,她正式提起诉讼,指控谷歌(Google)滥用在欧洲在线搜索市场的主导地位。

The formal charges against Gazprom would make it more likely that the Russian company would eventually be told to pay a fine — one that could theoretically run higher than 10 billion euros ($10.7 billion), although EU antitrust penalties have never gone that high.

对俄气的正式指控,让将这家俄罗斯公司最终被判罚款的可能性增加。罚款金额理论上可能会超过100亿欧元(约合670亿元人民币),不过欧盟的反垄断罚款从未达到那么高。

But the larger worry for Gazprom would be the prospect of being forced to allow more competition in markets it has long controlled. The company, for example, could eventually be forced to drop conditions in its contracts with European utilities that restrict those utilities' ability to share the gas with other countries.

但对俄气来说,更大的担忧是,可能会被迫允许长期被自己控制的市场上出现更多竞争。比如,俄气最终可能会被迫在与欧洲公共事业单位的合同中放弃一些禁止与其他国家共享天然气的条款。

The European antitrust investigation began with surprise raids in 2011 by European officials on Gazprom offices and those of several of its customers in Germany and across Central and Eastern Europe, as investigators sought billing records.

欧盟的反垄断调查始于2011年。当时,在调查人员寻找账单记录之际,欧盟官员出人意料地在德国和中欧、南欧各国对俄气及其客户的办公室进行了突击搜查。

A year later, in September 2012, Joaquín Almunia, Vestager's predecessor, opened a formal antitrust case asking whether Gazprom was blocking gas flows in some parts of Europe. Other questions were whether the Russian company was thwarting its European customers' efforts to diversify sources of supply, and whether it was imposing unfairly high charges by linking gas prices to those of oil, rather than basing prices on global natural gas market rates.

一年后的2012年9月,维斯塔格尔的前任华金·阿尔穆尼亚(Joaquín Almunia)正式就俄气是否在欧洲部分地区阻止天然气流通展开反垄断调查。其他的问题包括这家俄罗斯公司是否在阻挠其欧洲客户增加供应来源的努力,以及它是否在通过将天然气的价格同石油价格挂钩,而不是根据全球天然气市场价格定价的方式,收取不公平的高价。

Since then, Russia has annexed Crimea and destabilized Ukraine after the government in Kiev began steering the country toward tighter relations with the West and the European Union. That made penalizing Gazprom an even more diplomatically fragile issue. Although there are no Western sanctions on Gazprom's natural gas exports to Europe, both the EU and the U.S. have made it possible to restrict some energy exploration technologies to Russia and to limit some financing to Russian finance entities like Gazprombank.

在那之后,俄罗斯吞并了克里米亚,并在基辅政府开始引导乌克兰增强与西方和欧盟的关系后,破坏该国的稳定。这使处罚俄气成了一个外交上更敏感的问题。尽管西方未对俄气面向欧洲的天然气出口实行制裁,但欧盟和美国已经成功地阻止部分能源勘探技术被引入俄罗斯,并限制了对俄罗斯天然气工业银行(Gazprombank)等俄罗斯金融机构的部分融资。

Lithuania is among six EU member states that have long been dependent on Russia for all their gas — although Lithuania has established a gas-import terminal to break that monopoly. The others are Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Slovakia and Bulgaria, according to the European Commission.

立陶宛是长期以来天然气完全依靠俄罗斯的六个欧盟成员国之一。不过为了打破这一垄断,立陶宛已建立了一个天然气进口终端。其他五个国家分别是芬兰、拉脱维亚、爱沙尼亚、斯洛伐克和保加利亚。

As part of a series of settlements with Gazprom from 2003-05, the commission ensured that companies, including Eni of Italy, OMV of Austria and Ruhrgas of Germany, would no longer be prevented from reselling gas to buyers in other countries.

作为2003年到2005年期间与俄气达成的一系列和解的一部分,欧盟委员会保证,意大利埃尼(Eni)、奥地利OMV和德国鲁尔燃气(Ruhrgas)等公司在将天然气转卖给其他国家的买主时,将不再受限。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表