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欧洲性教育转向鼓励年轻人多生育

更新时间:2015-4-10 10:32:33 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Sex Education in Europe Turns to Urging More Births
欧洲性教育转向鼓励年轻人多生育

Twenty-five Danish 13- and 14-year-olds gathered in a circle to talk about sex. This was going to be awkward.

25个十三、四岁的丹麦孩子围成一个圆圈,讨论性话题。情况很尴尬。

One student surveyed her red nails while a classmate checked his cellphone. When the discussion turned to masturbation, a girl pointed across the room toward a boy who was already chortling, and then she started to cover her own giggles by cupping a hand over her mouth.

一个女生看着自己的红指甲,一个男生在看自己的手机。当话题转到手淫上时,一个男生哈哈大笑,他对面的一个女孩用手指着他,然后也开始用一只手捂住自己的嘴,掩盖咯咯的笑声。

“It’s O.K. to laugh,” said the instructor, 29-year-old Andreas Beck Kronborg, who looked young enough to be an older brother. “We’re going to talk about stuff that’s embarrassing.”

“没关系,你们笑吧,”29岁的教导员安德里亚斯·贝克·卡隆伯(Andreas Beck Kronborg)说,他看上去很年轻,就像一个大哥哥。“我们要谈的东西是令人尴尬。”

Recently, Sex and Society, a nonprofit group that provides much of Denmark’s sex education, adjusted its curriculum. The group no longer has a sole emphasis on how to prevent getting pregnant but now also talks about pregnancy and sex in a more positive light.

非营利性组织“性与社会”(Sex and Society)在丹麦提供了大量的性教育,最近它调整了课程,不再只侧重于如何防止怀孕。现在,它也开始从更积极的角度谈论怀孕和性。

It is all part of a not-so-subtle push in Europe to encourage people to have more babies. Denmark, like a number of European countries, is growing increasingly anxious about low birthrates. Those concerns have only been intensified by the region’s financial and economic crisis, with high unemployment rates among the young viewed as discouraging potential parents.

欧洲正在明确鼓励大家多生小孩,“性与社会”此举也属于其中一部分。像很多欧洲国家一样,丹麦对较低的出生率越来越感到担忧。而该地区的金融和经济危机又加剧了这种担忧,因为年轻人失业率高企,是阻碍他们生养小孩的一个原因。

The Italian health minister described Italy as a “dying country” in February. Germany has spent heavily on family subsidies but has little to show for it. Greece’s depression has further stalled its birthrate. And in Denmark, the birthrate has been below the so-called replacement rate needed to keep a population from declining — just over two children per woman — since the early 1970s.

今年2月,意大利卫生部长称意大利是一个“正在死去的国家”。德国斥巨资提供生育补贴,但成效并不显著。希腊糟糕的经济状况令让出生率进一步停滞不前。而丹麦自20世纪70年代初以来,出生率就低于“替代率”——每名女性略多于两个孩子,这样才能避免人口数量下降。

“For many, many years, we only talked about safe sex, how to prevent getting pregnant,” said Marianne Lomholt, the national director of Sex and Society. “Suddenly we just thought, maybe we should actually also tell them about how to get pregnant.”

“很多很多年来,我们只讲安全性行为,只讲如何避孕,”“性与社会”的全国主管玛丽安·罗姆赫特(Marianne Lomholt)说。“突然我们想到,也许我们还应该讲讲如何怀孕的事情。”

The demographic shift is more pressing in Europe than almost any other major region, save Japan. There are an estimated 28 Europeans 65 or older for every 100 residents ages 20 to 64, almost twice the world average, according to the United Nations, and compared with 24.7 for the United States. By the end of the century, the United Nations expects the European figure to double.

在欧洲,人口结构变化问题的紧迫性比除日本外的任何其他主要地区都更严重。联合国的数字显示,欧洲每100名年龄20至64岁的居民,就对应了28名65岁或以上居民,几乎是世界平均水平的两倍。而美国的这个数字为24.7。联合国预计,到本世纪末,欧洲的这个数字还将翻一番。

Such trends will transform societies, potentially reducing economic growth and increasing stress on public pension systems and requiring more elder care. Japan already faces existential questions in a country where adult diaper sales are beginning to eclipse those of baby diapers.

这种趋势将给社会带来深刻影响,可能会降低经济增长,给公共养老金体系造成越来越大的压力,导致养老需求增加。日本已经面临着事关存亡的问题,那里成人纸尿裤的销售量已经开始让婴儿尿布销量相形见绌。

But there is not a consensus about the impact of demographics. Some see a natural maturing of developed societies. Others see disaster ahead, because with fewer workers and more retirees, the active work force faces an increased burden to sustain social programs.

对于人口结构的影响,大家的看法并不统一。一些人认为,这是发达社会自然成熟的一个进程。另一些人则觉得前景是灾难性的,因为随着工人减少,退休人员增加,要想维持社会项目,在职的劳动力就会面临着更重的负担。

Productivity gains over time, though, can make up for such population stresses. Declining birthrates can also lead to labor shortages, and Germany has faced a gap in skilled labor. But that is hardly an issue now for much of Europe, which is mired in high unemployment.

不过随着时间的推移,生产率会有所提高,可以弥补这样的人口压力。出生率下降也能导致劳动力短缺,德国就面临着熟练劳动力的缺口。但是,对于失业率高企的大部分欧洲地区而言,目前这几乎不算是个问题。

“The policy agenda is much more complicated than people often think,” said Hans Timmer, chief economist for Europe and Central Asia at the World Bank. “There is this opportunity for higher per capita income, even if overall income is not growing as fast as in other countries.”

“政策议题比大家通常以为的复杂得多,”世界银行(World Bank)欧洲和中亚部门首席经济学家汉斯·蒂莫(Hans Timmer)说。“这些国家有可能实现更高的人均收入,即使整体收入增长没有其他国家那么快。”

Recent efforts to increase birthrates around the world have been creative, if not necessarily effective. President Vladimir V. Putin declared 2008 the Year of the Family in Russia, and his political party employed touches like a curving park bench designed to get couples to slide closer together. There was a double-entendre-laden Mentos commercial in Singapore featuring a rapper urging residents to do their civic duty with lines like, “I’m a patriotic husband, you my patriotic wife. Lemme book into ya camp and manufacture a life.”

最近世界各地提高出生率的努力富有创意,但未必有效。普京总统宣布,2008年是俄罗斯的“家庭年”,其政党的措施包括在公园里安放弯曲的长椅,这种设计可以让情侣靠得更近。新加坡播放的一个曼妥思广告充满了双关语,一位说唱歌手在广告中敦促居民履行公民义务,歌词如:“我这个丈夫很爱国,你这个妻子也很爱国。让我们在一起创造生命。”

In some countries, the issue can have a broad effect on policy debates.

在一些国家,这个问题可能会对政策辩论产生广泛影响。

Zsolt Darvas, a senior fellow at Bruegel, a research organization based in Brussels, said the shrinking population issue had contributed to an aversion in Germany to public spending, particularly at a time of economic uncertainty. The link between the two topics has been made more than once by Jens Weidmann, president of Germany’s Bundesbank.

左思特·达瓦斯(Zsolt Darvas)在位于布鲁塞尔的布勒哲尔国际经济研究所(Bruegel)担任高级研究员,他表示,由于人口减少,德国人更加反对政府增加公共支出了,特别是在经济前景不明朗的时候。德国央行德国联邦银行(Bundesbank)行长延斯·魏德曼(Jens Weidmann)不止一次地提到过这两个问题之间的联系。

“If you listen to the German argument — why Germany doesn’t want to have a larger budget deficit now to stimulate the economy — the argument they are always saying is that Germany has a very bad demographic outlook so they don’t want to burden future generations,” Mr. Darvas said.

“如果你听听德国人的说法——为什么德国不应该提高财政赤字来刺激经济——他们总是说,德国的人口结构前景非常糟糕,他们不想给未来几代人增加负担,“达瓦斯说。

Anxiety in Danish society has spawned no shortage of creativity. One priest made headlines for his enthusiastic writings on sex and eroticism. An entrepreneur created a pro-procreation dating site.

丹麦社会的焦虑感也催生了不少创意。一个牧师热情洋溢地写作有关性和色情的内容,因此上了新闻头条。一个创业家创建了一个鼓励生养小孩的交友网站。

Spies, a Danish travel company, began a “Do It for Denmark!” promotional campaign last year aimed at increasing getaway bookings to European capitals. A racy commercial featured a young Danish couple going to a hotel in Paris to do their part to lift the nation’s birthrate. “Can sex save Denmark’s future?” the campaign asked, claiming that Danes had 46 percent more sex on holidays.

丹麦旅游公司Spies去年推出“为丹麦而做!”的促销活动,希望增加去欧洲各国首都度假的订单量。它做了一个生动活泼的广告,其中一对年轻的丹麦夫妇前往巴黎一家酒店,为提升丹麦的出生率尽自己的一份力。“性可以拯救丹麦的未来吗?”这个促销活动提问道。它声称丹麦人在度假时性生活比平时多46%。

“The reaction was very positive,” said Eva Lundgren, head of marketing at Spies, which is part of the Thomas Cook group. She added that the frequent Danish media coverage of the issue made it a natural topic to work with. “There has been for some years now some anxiousness about how we are going to support the growing elderly mass of people,” she said.

“这个活动引起了非常积极的反响,”Spies的营销主管伊娃·伦德格伦(Eva Lundgren)说。该公司隶属于托马斯·库克集团(Thomas Cook)。她说,丹麦媒体频繁报道生育率问题,使其成为了一个自然而然的营销主题。“我们需要支撑日益增多的老龄人口,从而让人们感到焦虑,这种状况已经持续好几年了,”她说。

Christine Antorini, the Danish education minister, said in a statement that the government was now seeking “a stronger focus on a broad and positive approach to health and sexuality, where sexual health covers both joys and risks associated with sexual behavior.”

丹麦教育部部长克里斯蒂娜·安托里尼(Christine Antorini)在一份声明中说,政府现在“更加侧重于以广泛而积极的态度对待健康和性生活,其中性健康涵盖了与性行为相关的愉悦和风险这两个方面。”

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