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伊夫·圣罗兰时尚而宁静的最后居所

更新时间:2015-4-9 10:10:57 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Strength of Simplicity: A Look Inside Yves Saint Laurent’s Final Home in Tangier
伊夫·圣罗兰时尚而宁静的最后居所

The iconic fashion designer’s last residence, Villa Mabrouka, shows just how sophisticated ‘plain’ decorating can be — and how radical chintz can seem.

从这位知名时装设计师的最后居所Villa Mabrouka当中,我们可以看出,即使是“朴实无华”的装潢,也可以显得精巧复杂;即使是平凡无奇的印花棉布,也可以显得激进前卫。

It’s the antithesis of his other homes. Villa Mabrouka in Tangier, Morocco, which the iconic fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent shared with his partner, Pierre Bergé, is the visual incarnation of a breath of fresh air. No collections of priceless paintings, museum-class Asian antiquities, Renaissance bronzes or walls clad in hand-carved wood paneling here. For almost a decade, until Saint Laurent’s death at 71 in 2008, his preference for artfully layered spaces heaped with beautiful rarities gave way to rooms of spare sophistication. The Villa Mabrouka (mabrouka is “luck” in Arabic) is by far his most surprising refuge and an object lesson in the power of paring back.

它,与他在别处的住所都迥然不同。Villa Mabrouka位于摩洛哥的丹吉尔(Tangier),是知名时装设计师伊夫·圣洛朗(Yves Saint Laurent)及其伴侣皮埃尔·布尔热(Pierre Bergé)的爱巢,在视觉上给人神清气爽的感觉。这里没有价值连城的画作、博物馆级的亚洲文物藏品、文艺复兴时期的青铜器,也没有覆盖着手雕木镶板​​的墙面。圣罗兰逝世于2008年,享年71岁。在去世前的将近十年里,他的喜好发生了变化。他原本喜欢层次美观、堆满稀有珍品的空间,后来钟情于简约而精巧的房间。Villa Mabrouka(mabrouka在阿拉伯语中的意思是“幸运”)是他迄今为止最令人惊叹的心灵港湾,同时客观生动地展示了简约主义的魅力。

But first, the others: There was the two-bedroom apartment furnished with fine, early American furniture and oil paintings of American Indians in Manhattan’s Pierre hotel, and the 19th-century neo-Gothic Château Gabriel near Deauville, France. There was a sumptuous ground-floor apartment filled with French Art Deco furniture, antiquities and paintings by Picasso, Goya, Matisse and Ingres on the Rue de Babylone in Paris, and an exotic 1920s compound decorated with French colonial-era furniture and handcrafted Moroccan details, once owned by the painter Jacques Majorelle, in Marrakesh. Compared with Saint Laurent’s other residences, the rarely photographed or seen Villa Mabrouka is not only plain but cheery. His lifelong addictions, bouts with depression and nervous breakdowns have been recounted in numerous books, documentaries and, more recently, two feature films, but you’d be hard pressed to find anything sad or brooding here.

不过首先,我们来了解一下他的其他住处:他在曼哈顿皮埃尔酒店(Pierre hotel)拥有一套两室公寓,里面配有精细的早期美国家具和美洲印第安人的油画。他在法国多维尔附近拥有一座19世纪的新哥特式豪宅——加布里埃尔城堡(Château Gabriel)。他在巴黎巴比伦街(Rue de Babylone)拥有一套位于一楼的豪华公寓,里面充斥着古董和法国装饰艺术风格(Art Deco)的家具,以及毕加索(Picasso)、戈雅(Goya)、马蒂斯(Matisse)和安格尔(Ingres)的画作。他在马拉喀什(Marrakesh)拥有一座20世纪20年代的异域情调建筑群,饰有法国殖民时期的家具和手工打造的摩洛哥细节,原来的业主是雅克·马若雷尔(Jacques Majorelle)。与圣罗兰的其他住所相比,很少上镜或进入公众视野的Villa Mabrouka不仅朴实无华,而且令人愉悦。圣罗兰毕生的嗜癖、反复发作的抑郁症和神经衰弱在不计其数的书籍、纪录片以及最近两部专题片中都有所描述,但是,你在这里很难找到任何悲伤或忧思的痕迹。

Life at Mabrouka was quiet and private. Saint Laurent read, listened to opera and the birds, and watched movies and fishing boats. He went on walks and shared simple meals with close friends, including his muses Betty Catroux and Loulou de la Falaise, the interior designer Alberto Pinto and the garden designer Madison Cox. The glamorous dinners and parties he ringmastered at his other houses were long over by the time he and Bergé moved in for the summer in 1999.

圣罗兰在Mabrouka的生活清静而私密。他喜欢阅读、聆听歌剧和鸟语、观赏电影和渔船。他经常散步,跟密友分享简单的饭菜。来往的密友包括他的缪斯女神贝蒂·贾德鲁(Betty Catroux)和露露·德拉法莱丝(Loulou de la Falaise)、室内设计师阿尔贝托·平托(Alberto Pinto),以及园林设计师麦迪逊·考克斯(Madison Cox)。就在他和布尔热于1999年的夏天搬入Mabrouka的那时起,他在其他住处开办的盛大晚宴和派对便一去不复返了。

The villa is situated on a cliff five minutes uphill from downtown Tangier, overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar and the southern coast of Spain. Built in the 1960s, it incorporates Modernist and traditional Moroccan features including large, metal-framed floor-to-ceiling windows, whitewashed stucco walls, giant crenellated horseshoe arches and checkerboard-marble floors. One enters the walled compound through a circular courtyard shaded by a huge, drooping rubber tree and a phalanx of chest-high ferns. Sloping gardens spill over terraces laced with wide stone paths and steps that lead down to a biomorphic swimming pool carved into a hill of rock. Cox was responsible for planting palms, Italian lemon trees, climbing vines, iceberg roses, bougainvillea and hydrangea hedges, and installing a large dovecote. The expat American architect Stuart Church designed a pink stucco pavilion with a fireplace and windows looking onto the strait.

Mabrouka坐落在一处悬崖上,距离丹吉尔市中心有5分钟的路程,可以俯瞰直布罗陀海峡和西班牙的南部海岸。别墅建于20世纪60年代,结合了现代与传统摩洛哥特色,包括金属框架的落地玻璃大窗、粉刷灰泥墙、带有雉堞的马蹄形巨大拱门和棋盘图案的大理石地板。要走进这个带围墙的建筑群,需要穿过一座圆形庭院。院里不仅有一棵巨大的橡胶树垂下了树荫,还生长着一片齐胸高的蕨类植物。坡地花园从露台延伸出来,露台周围铺设了宽阔的石阶,通往一座嵌入山岩里的生态泳池。考克斯负责种植了棕榈树、意大利柠檬树、爬墙藤、冰山月季、九重葛和绣球花篱笆,并且安装了一座大型鸽舍。客居此地的美国建筑师斯图尔特·彻奇(Stuart Church)设计了一座粉红色的灰泥凉亭,亭内设有一座壁炉和多扇窗户,从窗口可以看到海峡。

But it’s not Mabrouka’s scenery or the “Moroccan Moderne” architecture that stirs the heart; it’s the décor. Most of all, it’s the bold use of chintz. Invented centuries ago in Calicut, India, the glazed cotton fabric printed with colorful patterns depicting flowers, birds, trees, fruits and butterflies became wildly popular during the 17th and 18th centuries. Long considered a staple in the houses of European aristocracy, chintz was elevated in the 20th century by influential interior designers including Colefax and Fowler, Elsie de Wolfe and Rose Cumming. During the last half century, international decorators with a penchant for the pretty, traditional, European “country-house” style used miles of the stuff, often in matching patterns, for curtains, bed covers, wall coverings and upholstery in unabashedly feminine rooms frequently accompanied by needlepoint pillows, porcelain knickknacks and layers of ruffles. Given its association with décor overkill — and the growing love of anything hard-edged and midcentury-modern — chintz’s appeal faded. It took Saint Laurent and his decorator, Jacques Grange — who used it brazenly and sparingly in Villa Mabrouka’s big, tall, whitewashed rooms — to banish the folderol and make clichéd chintz look fresh again.

不过,真正动人心弦的并不是Mabrouka的风景,也不是“摩洛哥式的摩登”建筑架构;而是室内装潢,尤其是对印花棉布的大胆采用。这种加光棉织物,几个世纪前发明于印度的卡利卡特(Calicut),上面印着色彩鲜艳的图案,描绘着花鸟、树木、水果和蝴蝶。印花棉布在17到18世纪开始广受欢迎。长期以来,它被认为是欧洲贵族住宅的必备饰物。20世纪,由于科尔法克斯(Colefax)、福勒(Fowler)、艾尔西·德·沃尔夫(Elsie De Wolfe)和罗丝·卡明(Rose Cumming)这些影响深远的室内设计师的大力推崇,印花棉布的地位得到了提升。在过去的半个世纪里,一些喜欢精美、传统的欧式“乡村别墅”风的国际装饰师,采用了大量图案配套的印花棉布,用于制作窗帘、床罩、壁纸和内饰,以装点出无所顾忌的女性化房间,而且往往还要搭配上刺绣枕头、瓷器装饰物和层层褶边。由于这种布料让人联想起矫揉造作的装潢,再加上硬边艺术和上世纪中叶现代主义风格日益流行,印花棉布的吸引力在逐渐衰退。圣罗兰及其装潢师雅克·葛兰许(Jacques Grange)在Villa Mabrouka高大敞亮的粉刷房间里大胆而谨慎地采用了这种布料,他们去粗取精,使老套的印花棉布重新焕发了生机。

Grange, whose clients include Francis Ford Coppola, Valentino, François Pinault and the Mark hotel in New York, worked with Saint Laurent and Bergé for more than 30 years decorating most of their residences. He told me that collaborating with Saint Laurent at the Villa Mabrouka was a revelation: “For the first time in his life, Yves wanted a restful, open, happy environment — not a treasure palace,” he said. For the homes in Normandy, Paris and Marrakesh, Grange and Saint Laurent would often start by devising a scenario, or “storyline,” based on references to a person, painting or novel. The décor at Saint Laurent’s Château Gabriel was based on characters in Marcel Proust’s “In Search of Lost Time.” The style of the Rue de Babylone apartment spoke to the influence of two friends, Marie-Laure and Charles de Noailles — among the most important patrons of the arts in the 20th century. For Mabrouka, Saint Laurent conjured a Tangier house where an imaginary English couple might have lived in the 1950s. “When he suggested using chintz, I was astonished,” Grange said. “It was a totally new reference — one doesn’t automatically connect Saint Laurent’s taste in interior design with big, whimsical, turquoise and yellow floral prints.”

葛兰许曾服务于弗朗西斯·福特·科波拉(Francis Ford Coppola)、华伦天奴(Valentino)、弗朗索瓦·皮诺(François Pinault)、纽约马克酒店(Mark hotel)等客户,他与圣罗兰和布尔热合作了30多年,为他们大部分住所的装潢操刀。他告诉笔者,在与圣罗兰合作装潢Villa Mabrouka的过程中,他有了新的发现:“伊夫有生以来第一次,想要打造一个宁静、开放、快乐的环境——而不是一座堆满珠宝的宫殿。”他说。对于圣罗兰在诺曼底、巴黎和马拉喀什的住宅,葛兰许和圣罗兰往往会在一开始依据某个人物、画作或小说设计一个场景,或“故事情节”。加布里埃尔城堡的装潢,是基于普鲁斯特的小说《追忆逝水年华》中的人物;巴比伦街那套公寓的风格受到了两位朋友的影响,也就是20世纪最重要的两位艺术赞助人,玛丽-洛尔(Marie-Laure)和查尔斯·诺瓦耶(Charles de Noailles)。而对于Mabrouka,圣罗兰将其构想为一幢住着一对虚构的英国夫妇的丹吉尔别墅,他们可能生活在20世纪50年代。“他建议我用印花棉布时,我很惊讶,”葛兰许说,“这是个完全令人耳目一新的关联——一般人不会想当然地将圣罗兰的室内设计品味,与异想天开的绿松石色和黄色巨幅花卉图案联系到一起。”

Contrary to what many people think, not all couturiers are gifted, or even competent, designers of rooms. (Coco Chanel, Hubert de Givenchy and Karl Lagerfeld are notable exceptions.) Saint Laurent’s personal decoration was as finely tuned and willful as his fashion collections. He was also one of the most avid collectors of fine art, objets and furniture of our time. He insisted on quality materials and workmanship, and he could afford them. Most crucially, he was a stubborn, driven rebel with a pitch-perfect take on glamour and fantasy. His rooms are impossible to copy.

与很多人设想的不同,并不是所有的时装设计师都是天才级的室内设计师,有些人甚至连合格都算不上(可可·香奈儿、纪梵希和卡尔·拉格菲尔德都是杰出的例外)。圣罗兰的个人装潢和他的时装系列一样精致入微、天马行空。他也是当代最狂热的美术、艺术品和家具收藏家之一。他坚持采用优质的材料和工艺,这都是在他财力范围内的事。最关键的是,他是一个倔强而充满干劲的反叛者,可以完美而精准地把握动人心弦的魅力,和天马行空的幻想。他的房间,是不可复制的。

Today, the Villa Mabrouka doesn’t look exactly like the photographs on these pages. All of the big upholstered sofas and armchairs remain in place, but many of the other furnishings and objects — the giant bronze Claude Lalanne water-lily mirrors and the library, for instance — have found a new home in Bergé’s current Tangier house nearby, the Villa Léon l’Africain. But Mabrouka’s bedrooms are untouched; even the padded basket-bed that belonged to the last of the fabled couturier’s four French bulldogs (all of them named Moujik) remains nestled in a corner.

如今,Villa Mabrouka看起来和网页上的照片并不完全一样了。所有的软垫大沙发和扶手椅都留在了原地,但是许多其他家具和物品——比如克洛德·莱兰(Claude Lalanne)设计的巨型睡莲青铜镜,以及藏书,已经搬到了布尔热目前在丹吉尔的住所Villa Léon l’Africain,就在Villa Mabrouka附近。但是Mabrouka的卧室原封未动;就连牛头犬所睡的软垫篮子床,也依然放置在一隅。据说圣罗兰养过四只法国牛头犬(它们都叫Moujik,意思是俄罗斯农夫)。

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