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建筑设计,以禽为本

更新时间:2015-3-16 8:27:06 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Eggs Are Happy, Too
建筑设计,以禽为本

While working on the design of a synagogue for a nonprofit organization, Stephen Cassell, a partner in Architecture Research Office, the New York firm, was approached by a board member.

纽约公司“建筑设计研究办工室”(Architecture Research Office,ARO)的合伙人斯蒂芬·卡塞尔(Stephen Cassell) 在为某个非盈利组织设计犹太教堂时,一名董事会的成员向他走了过来。

“The board member said, ‘I have a strange question: Would you be interested in designing a really modern chicken coop?’ ” Mr. Cassell said. “How could we say no to that?”

“这位董事会成员说,‘我有个不情之请:你有兴趣来设计一座非常现代化的鸡舍吗?’”卡塞尔说,“我们怎么能拒绝呢?”

Two views of the coop.
鸡舍的两面。

He didn’t. And after reading books from the 1960s and ’70s on building what Mr. Cassell called “hippie how-to chicken coops,” the architect and his colleagues at ARO, including Ethan Feuer, a designer, set about building an aesthetically compelling coop.

他当然没有。在翻阅了一些20世纪60年代至70年代、被卡塞尔称为“嬉皮士鸡舍入门”的书籍后,这位建筑师和他在ARO的同事们,包括设计师伊桑·福伊尔(Ethan Feuer),开始动手建造一座美轮美奂的鸡舍。

“Part of it was just trying to understand how this would work,” Mr. Cassell said. “The little thing is 60 square feet. How do you approach it from a design standpoint?”

“我们的一部分目的也是想了解一下,这东西该怎么做,”卡塞尔说,“这么小的建筑,面积才60平方英尺(约5.6平方米)。你该怎样从建筑设计的角度来完成这件作品呢?”

Their coop features radiant floor heating, a metal roof with folded shingle edges that create patterns of shade and discrete easy-access doors to collect the eggs and empty the manure. Completed last summer, the six-foot-high coop now sits in the Hamptons (where else?) behind the client’s farmhouse — although you could argue that Mr. Cassell’s real clients were the chickens. The architect spoke by phone about taking high-design down to the farm. (This interview has been edited and condensed.)

他们的鸡舍装有辐射式地暖,铺着带有叠瓦屋檐、可以投下各种图案阴影的金属屋顶,还安装了若干各自独立、开关方便的小门,以便收集鸡蛋和清空粪便。自去年夏天建好后,这座六英尺高(约1.8米)的鸡舍就屹立在了汉普顿(还能是哪儿?),这位客户的农场后面——虽然你可能会争辩说,卡塞尔真正的客户其实是那些鸡。这位设计师通过电话接受采访,谈起了将高端设计运用于农场的心得(这篇采访经过编辑删减)。

Q. Did you know anything about chicken coops before starting this? Ever been in one?

问:开始这次设计之前,你对鸡舍是否有所了解?以前设计过鸡舍吗?

A. I’m from Brooklyn. So, no. Well, I have an old family friend, a friend of my parents. He was a photographer who had all these varieties of chickens. I remember seeing his chicken coop years ago.

答:我来自布鲁克林,所以没有。不过,我有一位世交,也就是我父母的朋友。他是个摄影师,曾经拍过各个品种的鸡。我记得几年前曾见过他的鸡舍。

But for all of our projects, we do a fair amount of research. What’s going to work? What are the parameters? How do you design this in a way that’s not just an aesthetic function?

但我们对所有项目都会做大量的研究。考虑怎么做才会行之有效,参数应该是多少,怎样做才能让你的设计不仅仅是美观而已。

It has to be functional, in other words.

问:换句话说,必须实用。

Yes. Form follows fowl.

答:是的。设计,以家禽为本。

What did you learn about existing coop design?

问:你从现有的鸡舍设计中学到了什么?

Some chicken coop designs are faux rustic farm buildings. That’s not very interesting. Chicken coops also tend to be piecemeal. There’s a big ugly latch or door to clean the coop out, another door to get in to harvest the eggs. We wanted to do something with a clear singular form that’s interesting and can work really well. It’s the same questions we ask when we’re designing a house.

答:有些鸡舍的外观模仿了乡村农场里的建筑。那样的设计不是很有趣。许多鸡舍也往往设计得很零乱,通常有一个又大又丑的插销或大门供人们清洁整栋鸡舍,又有另一扇门供他们进去收集鸡蛋。而我们想用清晰而单一的形式来做点有趣又真正有用的东西。我们在设计一栋房屋的时候,问的也是同样的问题。

So when your clients are chickens, what kind of needs do you have to satisfy?

问:那如果你们的客户是一群鸡,你们必须满足它们怎样的需求呢?

A lot of it is common sense, but wouldn’t have been intuitive for me. Things like making sure the chickens are safe from predators in a fenced-in area. Making sure there isn’t too much exposed concrete so they don’t hurt themselves.

答:多数都在常识范畴,但对我而言并不是凭直觉即知的事。比如要确保这些鸡待在封闭空间里,远离那些捕食者。还要确保没有太多暴露在外的混凝土,以免它们伤了自己。

We designed three different versions. For one of them, we asked, “What if Marcel Breuer designed a Brutalist chicken coop?” It was poured-form concrete, very sculptural. It seemed interesting in a ridiculous way. But in the end, we decided to go in a different direction.

我们设计了三个不同的版本。针对其中一款设计,我们问自己,“如果让马歇·布劳耶(Marcel Breuer,在世界上首创钢管家具的产品设计师——译注)来设计一座野兽派的鸡舍,他会怎么做呢?”我们为这个方案选择了浇筑式混凝土结构,很有雕塑感,看起来有一种荒诞的趣味性。但是,最终我们还是决定朝另一个方向设计。

Why did you choose metal shingles and radiant floor heating?

问:你们为何选择了金属屋瓦与辐射式地暖?

They’re aluminum roofing material cut into a shingle shape. It seemed like a way to clad it so it wouldn’t automatically fall into the rustic category.

答:这些是切割成瓦片形状的铝制屋顶材料,看上去就像某种形式的金属包边,这样它就不会落入乡村建筑的窠臼。

This may be the only chicken coop that has radiant floor heating. Usually they’re lit, or warmed, by a light bulb. That’s what happens when you have a good contractor who does high-end Hamptons homes. When the contractor brought up radiant floor heating, I thought, ‘That’s ridiculous.’ But then I thought, ‘That’s a really good idea.’ If the heating fails, you’d have a bunch of dead chickens in winter.

这可能是唯一一栋带辐射式地暖的鸡舍。普通鸡舍都采用灯泡照明或供暖,但是当你聘请了一位专门承建高端汉普顿住宅的优秀建筑承包商后,就会发生这样的事。当这位承包商提到辐射式地暖时,我想“这太离谱了”;但转念又一想,“真是个好主意”。如果没有供暖,到冬天时,你得到的会是一堆死鸡。

Are these chickens living in a palatial home?

问:这些鸡是住在宫殿式的房屋里吗?

Do you mean is it a McMansion coop? No, the dimensions are very similar to typical coops. They may be pampered in style, but not square footage.

答:你是说,这是一栋麦氏豪宅型(McMansion)的大鸡舍吗?不,这座鸡舍的容积与普通鸡舍非常相似。它们也许住得很时尚,但建筑面积没那么大。

What was the budget for this project?

问:该项目的预算怎么样?

We didn’t have a lot of comparables. How do you even charge for a chicken coop? We decided to do it pro bono. We said: “Let’s just enjoy it. We’re going to have a great time, learn a lot.”

答:我们没有太多可供比较的项目。你该如何为一座鸡舍收费呢?所以,我们决定无偿提供设计。我们说:“让我们来尽情设计吧。我们肯定会做得很开心,学到很多东西。”

I think the client liked the idea of saying, “Just because it’s a chicken coop, it doesn’t mean you can’t be creative.” It is silly, but at the same time, why not make something interesting?

我想,这位客户肯定觉得这个想法不错,所以他说,“别以为这只是座鸡舍,你们就不能施展创意了。”感觉傻傻的,但与此同时,为何不做点有趣的东西出来呢?

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