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英国宣布加入中国主导的亚投行

更新时间:2015-3-16 8:10:46 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

With Plan to Join China-Led Bank, Britain Opens Door for Others
英国宣布加入中国主导的亚投行

BEIJING — A surprise decision this week by Britain to join China’s new development bank for Asia, despite opposition from the Obama administration, will almost certainly encourage other American allies to become members, particularly Australia and South Korea, analysts said Friday.

北京——尽管遭到奥巴马政府的反对,英国本周还是决定加入中国针对亚洲地区创立的开发银行。分析人士在周五表示,这个令人意外的决定几乎肯定会鼓励美国的其他盟友成为该组织成员国。

Britain’s announcement Thursday that it intends to join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, which China is largely funding in hopes of becoming the dominant influence in Asian affairs, has bolstered the fledgling bank’s reputation even before it begins operations, the analysts said.

分析人士表示,英国周四宣布打算加入亚洲基础设施投资银行(Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank,简称亚投行)的举动,令该行还未开始运营已经积攒起信誉,中国投入巨资筹建亚投行,希望其在亚洲事务方面发挥支配性的影响力。

Britain said it wanted the new bank — which would provide financing for transportation, telecommunications and energy projects in developing countries across Asia — to address concerns about environmental standards and other lending safeguards before signing the final membership documents.

英国曾表示,希望在签署最终会员国文件之前,这个新银行能够解除人们对环境标准和其他贷款保障的担忧。该银行会为亚洲地区发展中国家的交通、电信及能源项目提供资金。

But the chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, made it clear Thursday that Britain was intent on joining, calling it “an unrivaled opportunity for the U.K. and Asia to invest and grow together.”

但英国财政大臣乔治·奥斯本(George Osborne)在周四明确表示,英国已经下定决心加入亚投行,称这“对英国和亚洲来说是一个共同投资和发展的绝佳机会”。

Membership by Britain, America’s closest ally and the first would-be member from the Group of 7 leading economies, would be a major step toward China’s goal of making the bank, which President Xi Jinping inaugurated last October, a global financial institution rivaling the World Bank.

英国是美国最亲密盟友,也是七国集团(Group of 7)中第一个将要加入亚投行的国家。中国希望该银行能成为与世界银行(World Bank)竞争的全球性金融机构,英国的加入是它向这个目标迈出的重要一步。习近平在去年10月签署文件成立亚投行。

The Chinese Finance Ministry warmly welcomed the British announcement, saying on its website on Friday that if all went well, Britain would formally become a “prospective founding member” of the bank by the end of March.

中国财政部对英国的决定表示热烈欢迎,并于周五在其网站上发布消息称,如一切顺利,英国将于3月底正式成为亚投行“意向创始成员国”。

Washington has expressed reservations about the new institution, on the grounds that it would not meet environmental standards, procurement requirements and other safeguards adopted by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the Asian Development Bank for their lending projects.

华盛顿方面表示对该新机构的保留意见,理由是该银行不会达到环境标准,采购要求,以及世界银行、国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund)及亚洲开发银行(Asian Development Bank)为其贷款项目采取的其他保障举措。

But fundamentally, Washington views the Chinese venture as a deliberate challenge to those postwar institutions, which are led by the United States and, to a lesser extent, Japan, and the Obama administration has put pressure on allies not to participate.

但从根本上来看,华盛顿方面认为中国成立该银行是在故意挑战由美国——较小程度上也算是由日本——领导的战后体制。奥巴马政府曾向盟友施压,要求它们不要加入。

The National Security Council in Washington implicitly criticized Britain’s decision, in an indication that Prime Minister David Cameron’s conservative government had forged ahead with little if any consultation with the United States.

华盛顿国家安全委员会(National Security Council)含蓄地批评了英国的决定,暗示英国首相戴维·卡梅伦(David Cameron)的保守派政府在基本没有与美国进行任何磋商的情况下采取了行动。

“This is the U.K.’s sovereign decision,” a spokesman at the National Security Council said. “We hope and expect that the U.K. will use its voice to push for the adoption of high standards.”

“这是英国的主权决定,”一名发言人在国家安全委员会上说。 “我们希望并期待英国利用自己的声音,推动高标准的引入。”

South Korea and Australia, both of which count China as their largest trading partner, have seriously considered membership but have held back, largely because of forceful warnings from Washington, including a specific appeal to Australia by President Obama. Peter Drysdale, a professor of economics at Australian National University who has advised Australian governments, said the British decision would probably lead Australia to join.

中国的两大贸易伙伴韩国和澳大利亚都曾认真考虑加入该组织,但迟迟没有行动,这在很大程度上是因为来自华盛顿的大力警告。其中,奥巴马总统还曾对澳大利亚提出特殊请求。曾为澳大利亚政府提供建议的澳大利亚国立大学(Australian National University)经济学教授彼得·德赖斯代尔(Peter Drysdale)说,英国的决定可能会促使澳大利亚加入。

“I think it will play into the decision by Australia which should be made over the next few weeks,” Mr. Drysdale said Friday. He added that Australia, with its close economic ties to China, had more reason to join the bank than Britain and other European countries had.

“我认为这会影响澳大利亚在接下来几周内做出的决定,” 德赖斯代尔周五表示。他还说,澳大利亚与中国的经济联系密切,与英国和其他欧洲国家相比,它更有理由加入这个银行。

Prime Minister Tony Abbott’s government decided against Australian membership late last year, citing national security considerations. In the weeks leading up to that decision, Mr. Obama spoke to Mr. Abbott and urged him against joining, a senior member of the Australian government said. Recently, however, the government has indicated that it is reconsidering.

去年晚些时候,澳大利亚总理托尼·阿博特(Tony Abbott)的政府以担心国家安全为由,作出了反对澳大利亚加入该银行的决定。澳大利亚政府的一名高级成员称,在做出决定之前的几周里,奥巴马曾与阿博特谈话,并要求他不要加入。然而,政府最近已经表示在重新考虑。

In South Korea, Britain’s announcement is likely to reignite the government’s internal debate about the merits of membership, said Hahm Chaibong, president of the Asan Institute for Policy Studies in Seoul.

首尔峨山政策研究院(Asan Institute for Policy Studies)院长咸在凤(Hahm Chaibong)说,英国的声明很可能令韩国政府内部就加入该行的好处再次展开争论。

“It will give a lot of ammunition to those who have been pushing for it,” Mr. Hahm said. “The ministries of trade and finance have been for it. The United States has been unremittingly negative.”

“它将给那些一直在推动此事的人提供大量弹药,” 咸在凤说。“贸易和金融部对其表示支持。美国的反对立场则一直很坚定。”

Having South Korea as a founding member would be a considerable coup for Beijing. Mr. Xi has been wooing President Park Geun-hye, who must balance the security that the United States provides to South Korea against the relatively new economic clout of China.

倘若韩国能成为创始成员,在北京看来将是一个不小的变局。习近平一直在寻求韩国总统朴槿惠(Park Geun-hye)的支持,她必须在美国提供给韩国的安全保护和中国相对较新的经济影响力之间寻求平衡。

Mr. Drysdale said British membership would most likely amount to a persuasive case for major European countries to join. The head of the European Union Chamber of Commerce in China, Jörg Wuttke, agreed, saying, “If Britain walks through that door, others will follow swiftly. I am sure Luxembourg and the French are next.”

德赖斯代尔说,英国的成员身份极有可能说服重要欧洲国家加入。中国欧盟商会(European Union Chamber of Commerce in China)主席约尔格·伍德克(Jörg Wuttke)也同意这种观点,他说,“假如英国走过那扇门,其他人就会快速跟过来。我相信卢森堡和法国会是下一批。”

A senior official at the Manila-based Asian Development Bank, which to the frustration of China has always been led by its rival Japan, said that American “intransigence” on the issue was futile. “This horse is out of the barn,” said the official, who did not want to be identified for fear of offending the bank’s member countries.

总部设在马尼拉的亚洲开发银行(Asian Development Bank)的高级官员说,美国对此事的“不妥协”没有任何作用。亚洲开发银行一向由对头日本领导,这是中国所不乐见的。“这匹马已经出了马厩,”这名官员称。因为担心得罪银行的成员国,该官员不愿意透露身份。

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